THE LUSTER OF MERCERISED COTTON DEPENDS ON VARIOUS FACTORS: Cotton fiber is a long chain polymer of glucose residue. The technical data and prescriptions are as follows: Prescription             : 2.5 g/l Torozym NT, 2 g/l Schnellnetzer KE, 1 g/l, Speed                                    : 70 m/min, Table 2: The properties of the chemicals that were used in removing dressing, Table 3: The properties of the chemicals that were used in the bleaching process, Burner position                   : Vertical – double side, Burner distance                  : 8 mm, pH                                           : 6 – 7, Temperature                       : 60 – 65°C. Properties of Cotton. It is an ultimate reference for textile students and professionals. colour of the dyed cloth is brighter and deeper. That is, the sodium hydroxide that is concentrated this much, penetrates inside the micelles (crystallites) and a structure called hydrate cellulose emerges. The process lye is continually circulated and the temperature and concentration monitored. * Evenness and uniformity of swelling is comparatively better. New process and machinery based on discoveries concerning mercerization were described by I. Rusznak and C. Duckworth  (proc. The liquor is usually heated by closed steam coils. Hence this is generally preferred. We observed the best results at the conclusion of the trials with dry process. Impregnation is carried out at relayed condition but washing carried out under tension. Mercerized yarns and threads have a silky, vibrant look that sets them apart from non-mercerized materials. Also it First hot caustic soda can penetrate the fabric and fiber surfaces thoroughly with the result that a greater proportion of the cellulose may be modified. Mercerization Conditions and Characterized by NIR FT Raman Spectroscopy in Combination with Multivariate Analytical Methods Heléne Almlöf Ambjörnsson,a,* Karla Schenzel,b and Ulf Germgård a Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) is produced commercially in a two-stage process consisting of a mercerization stage followed by an etherification stage. The primary and secondary alcohols in the cellulose are acidic in nature. To summarize the benefits of hot mercerization: Essentials mercerization involves treating of cotton material with strong NaOH solution and washing it off from the material. After washing, caustic soda concentration in the fabric must be less than 8%, otherwise shrinkage occurs if tension is reduced. (35°Tw) solution. In 1851, John Mercer was granted a British Patent for work he had done pertaining to cotton, linen and other vegetable fibrous materials that in effect caused certain changes in the character of the fiber when subjected to caustic soda, sulfuric acid, and/or other chemicals, etc. Contact of the cloth impregnated with strong NaOH solution with air (carbon dioxide) produces sodium carbonate, which hinder swelling (if re-used untreated). Mercerized cotton has proved itself a most desirable addition to the textiles. it should be between 1.2-2.4 for fabric and should be more than 2 for yarn. Thesis also discuss the change of trend, design and style among times and know about how a technical person developed quality of product. Fixed period                  : After the dyeing, they were held by rotating at the dock for 14 h. After fixing, the fabrics were washed with hot-boiling water and then dried at 120°C. They were dried in the drying machine, which works with contact drying method and which consists of 20 cylinders that are heated with steam. The cold process under conditions can easily produce no uniformity mercerized fabrics. There are not mercerizing agents as erroneously described by some auxiliary manufacturers but are only wetting agents to be used in the mercerizing liquor; sodium hydroxide is the actual mercerizing agent. The advantages of mercerizing depend on the condition of treatment, like caustic temperature, caustic concentration, mercerizing time and … This may be eliminated by adding calculated quantities of lime. Mercerization machine that has stabilization section after the caustic chamber, chain frame and a 5 final washing chamber. Then the fabric is passed through pressure mangle and fabric advance of 8yds, in this time, fabric is mercerized and 40-60time required. Temperature           : In cylinder drier machine at 140°C. The lumen is the During its travel in the stenter it meets a constantly decreasing concentration of NaOH solution. Concentrated solutions of caustic soda cause considerable swelling of cotton fiber, the changes in cellulose physical properties being irreversible. THE CONDITION OR CONSIDERABLE POINTS FOR MERCERIZATION. The caustic actually rearranges the cellulous molecules in the fiber to produce these changes. The recuperator consists of a cast iron chamber containing two sets of guide rollers, the top row begin driven. Lowe (source: Wikipedia). The precipitate CaCO3 may be separated by settling and filtration/decantation. The moisture regain values of cotton yarn mercerized with sodium hydroxide solutions of various concentrationsat10°,18°and 31°C were determined by oven drying method and are given in table, It is seen that the moisture regain of mercerized cotton increases with increase in sodium hydroxide concentration. The advantages of mercerizing depend on the condition of treatment, like caustic temperature, caustic concentration, mercerizing time and fabric tension (Gemci, 2010; Krishna Kumar, 2010). Mercerization is the treatment to improve the dyeing and mechanical properties of cotton fabrics. Last, the stitch/tension variable can be easily set at any desired level, which in turn controls the fabric properties. Process of mercerization: Cotton fabric in stretched Increase in alkali concentration had a continual positive effect for the samples mercerized at 20°C. The scoured and bleached cotton fabric is passed through a padding mangle containing 55°-65°Tw the NaOH solution at 18°C for 2-3 min with tension. The process of mercerization can be done at any These fabrics have medium weights and approximately same construction.  Squeezing to lower lye content is possible with hot mercerizing. These hydroxyl groups form the basis for the high hydrogen bonding and orientation found in the fibers. It was observed that three different fabric samples processed at three different time and conditions indicated the best unshrinking values under dry mercerization conditions and decreased shrinkage values on warp direction with increasing of processing time. NishimuraH, SarkoA (1987) Mercerization of cellulose IV: Mechanism of mercerization and crystallite sizes.JApplPolym Sci33:867-874. hollow part of fibre. P. 407) the basic principle of this process is described by the following sequence: In this process the penetration of caustic soda into the fabric and fibers is extremely rapid, through and uniform. It was bleached after the rotation period of 6 hour ended. After the finishing processes, the sample fabrics were applied the dimension stability test in order to observe the change in their dimensions. mercerization process involved in wet processing of textiles textiles mercerization process. Cotton fibers in the yarn bundle can be counted using a low power microscope. Then warps are squeezed and pass through3-4boxes containing caustic soda solution of mercerizing strength. The other advantage of hot mercerizing process is that no wetting agent is needed even for mercerization of grey fabrics. If the shade is lighter than standard, the fabric is a lower degree of mercerization; and if darker, it a higher degree of mercerization. The Mercerization is also applied to other cellulosic fibers such as Natural Linen, Hemp, the Bamboo, bringing significant benefits and quality improvements in manufactured products. Hot mercerization has been recommended because cotton is largely hydrophobic, contains varying amounts of sizing materials when woven and, since cold caustic mercerizing solutions are viscous, surface actives are at very low levels. It is frequently used in figured cotton damask tablecloths and napkins. In general, the dried fabrics provide better stability in resistance to shrinkage in the warp, but this difference disappears when we think of the effect of drying. This causes the fibers to swell, and their cross-section changes from kidney-shaped to round. What Are The Advantages of Mercerized Cotton? We observed the best results at the conclusion of the trials again with wet process. The first washing is with hot water and then cold water. We see the best results at the conclusion of the trials with dry process. Cotton fiber grows in a bowl; each fiber is produced from an individual seed (about 5,000 altogether) in the base. The threads or fabrics are rinsed a number of times after it has been subjected to sodium hydroxide. Speed                                   : 60m/min. Changes in the resistance to shrinkage in the direction of warp and weft in dobby weave fabric depending on process time period was shown in Figures 8 and 9, respectively. We know that mercerizing is a additional process to improve the physical and chemical properties of the cotton yarn or fabric. yarns due to sizing. List the main advantage of superwash wool: b. The properties of the chemicals that were used in desizing and bleaching processes and other auxiliary chemicals were given in Table 2, Table 3 and Table 4, respectively. Mercerization without tension gives no luster and causes a considerable shrinkage. Describe in detail the process of yarn mercerization. Generally cotton mercerization is conducted in a mercerizing bath containing high concentration of caustic soda or sodium hydroxide solution such as 20-30%. When the fiber is transferred to the water and well washed. The hydroxyl groups independently dissociate to the extent of alkali sorption. Having realized this, it becomes obvious that long fine staple cottons are best for mercerizing because they can be combed and spun into yarns having a small amount of twist and the individual’s fibers can lye fairly parallel to the lengthwise direction of the yarn. When cotton is treated with caustic soda solution, soda solution is formed which causes swelling of fibers. Appearance is improved through increased luster, a deepening of the color and the production of a transparent look, the feel of the fabric is improved through a resulting soft hand and improved smoothness, and strength and elongation are also improved, along … Wetting agent is used in caustic soda solution. This project is proposing a possibility of mercerization of cotton fabric with lower caustic soda concentration than 20% through a mercerization at low temperature. in grey state. Furthermore, we generally express the Kidney shaped becomes almost circular (oval shaped) in X-section. Mercerized fabrics however fibres. In the traditional mercerization process, cotton yarn or fabric Tensile strength with caustic soda concentration: Higher the fiber lengths lower the twist. When the fashions dictate a great vogue in silks, then mercerized cotton likewise leaps forward. wrennal (J. soc. 25% solution of NaOH for 40-45 seconds. The commercial possibilities of this discovery were not overlooked. Mercerization is a process applied to cotton yarns or fabrics which gives to the cotton fiber a silk-like luster, a somewhat greater strength than that of ordinary cotton, and a greater affinity for dyes. Bleaching process was carried out in a Mega-Bleach, which has two pre-washing Chambers, a Flexnip in which the solution is made to absorb to the fabric, a steam chamber which is appropriate for accumulation type working and four washing chambers at its exit. adds to the tensile strength of the fabric. Cotton mercerizing is the most popular operation. but we have some major disadvantages: The These alterations increase sorption, tensile strength and luster of fibres. * Higher productivity. The C. I. Generally, there are two types of mercerizing wetting agents-. One of the finishing operations that change the physical and characteristic properties of cotton fiber and the most important of these is mercerization. Shrinkage of the fabric is much less than that occurring in the cold process. The fabric is entered in the bath of caustic soda solution with two down rollers. In addition, the cotton fibers were converted into a swollen and rough state after mercerization treatment. The °Tw is measured by which go in to NaOH solution. Each mangle is arranged to provide either a single or double immersion in the caustic liquor and two squeezes. They were mercerized according to the plan indicated in Table 5 by using fabric mercerization machine at 60°C and 30°Be NaOH. The added desirable water handling properties gained are a secondary bonus. The fabric advances 5yds in contact with other rollers so that caustic soda can penetrate perfectly in fabric. Mercerization The process of mercerisation was developed by John Mercer (UK). Deconvolution occurs or convolution twist becomes less. grey stage due to same reasons. As seen in Table 9, 60 – 70% improvement was seen in the direction of the warp compared to the raw fabric. Mercerized cotton is at the present time a direct competitor of silk in a great number of ways, both as an imitation and as a substitute. The machine is suitable to any kind of woven fabric (heavy, light, 100% cotton, linen, blends). Some advantages of this mercerization over grey It describes textiles in comprehensive. Later on it was found that Types of Mercerization Mercerization are Two Types: 1) Tension Mercerization • The purpose of mercerization is to increase luster of Cotton fibers • The fiber untwists and swells, lumen becomes rounder in cross-section and it gains luster. Baker's backer: NFL legend still believes in young CB After the yarn is spun, numerous loose ends of fibers produce from the surface of the yarns. Some of them are: when the grey fabric is mercerized some desizing and scouring takes place Its cheapness permits its use in a number of things for which silk would be impracticable because of prohibitive cost. The exit humidity of the fabrics was measured with humidity measurement device in a controlled way. The causes for carrying out grey mercerization are-. 52°Tw are not much sensitive. The increasing public awareness and sense of social responsibility related to environmental issues have led the textile industry to manufacture products with improved environmental profiles. We observed the best results at the conclusion of the trials with wet process. The threads or fabrics are subjected to tension during the finishing process for conventional mercerization. Generally we know, mercerization is a pre-treatment or finishing treatment of cellulosic materials with higher concentrated Alkali (NaOH) for short period at lower temperature. The improved lustre of mercerised cotton is due to the production of nearly circular cotton fibres under tension. Then the fabric is washed properly with cold water. Ammonia treatment results in a more rounded cotton fiber, which scatters light more, in turn resulting in a luster that is less bright.An additional advantage of ammonia mercerization is the absence of alkaline oxy-cellulose that results with caustic treatments, which is evidenced by strength-losses and dyeing variation. Then padded fabric is squeezed with squeezing roller. Since the shrinkage in the fibers increase as the time period increases, the resistance to shrinkage in the weft appears to be higher. Not until the later eighties did mercerization become practical, and then for two reasons. These two stages give very Also, affinity for absorption of dye increases along with chemical reactivity. Advantages of Ammonia mercerization * Less pollution. THE REACTIONS THAT TAKES PLACE IN MERCERIZATION: Since concentrated sodium hydroxide (operational solution that includes chemicals) is used in mercerization process, the reactions that take place with the cellulose fibers are intermolecular reactions. Larger dimensional stability of the articles 3. Tension mercerization:- This type of mercerisation is used to increase the luster of a fabric. The recovery of caustic is some easier as impurities to some extent are removed by desizing. However, when goods are processed under tensions which are too great, dye sorption and affinity are decreased because the internal fiber structure is collapsed. Finally the rollers are brought close together to facility the removal of stretched yarn. This process increases the dyeability of the fabric but does But it is also used in a great number of so-called silk-mixed fabrics, such as silk-mixed mohair, silk-mixed alpaca, silkmixed woolen and worsted figured goods, silk-mixed worsteds for men’s wear, silk-mixed cottons, and so on. Monaco Mercerized Cotton Crochet Thread The finishing operations performed on weaving fabrics include all the operations carried out to provide a fabric with those properties that the customer desires after the fabrics leave the textile factories. it also gives the cloth a better resistance to multiple washings, keeping the colours bright and unchanged over time. Baker's backer: NFL legend still believes in young CB Mercerization details of these fabrics were given in Table 5. The cotton also loses up to 25% of its length. The machine is suitable to any kind of woven fabric (heavy, light, 100% cotton, linen, blends) High flexibility to treat small and medium fabric batches (production speed up to 35 – 40 mt/ 1’). The fabric is then dyed using benzopurpurine. Better covering of dead and/or mossy cotton 6. The result is that mercerizing causes rapid and extensive shrinkage and swelling of cotton production a compacted surface causing further penetration to become difficult. Should not interfere with the caustic recovery from the wash liquors after mercerization. Synthetic rubber coated padding roller is placed on guide roller, mounted on ball-bearing to avoid any drag of slip of yarn. High flexibility to treat small and medium fabric batches (production speed up to 35 – 40 mt/ 1’). Mercerization is a process in which textiles (typically cotton) are treated with caustic soda (NaOH) solution to improve properties such as fiber strength, shrinkage resistance, luster, and dye affinity. In the direction of the weft, an improvement of 25 – 75% was observed depending on the time period similar to the plain weave. Penetration is assisted by the rubber coated rollers which determines the amount of tensiono0n the yarn. Holding: 20 minutes in saturated steam at 98°C the temperatures of the pre-washing and final washing chambers were fixed at 90 – 95°C. upon the amount of Ba(OH). such an extent that sometimes the lumen may even disappears. for chemical tests. No need of padding mangle or chain (stenter). It has been determined that when a scoured fabric is dipped into the mercerization flotte, the time required for completely swelling of fibers is 60 s. However this period is getting less with the aid of mechanical effects as is in the mercerization machines. Sodium hydroxide reacts with the hydroxyl groups inside the macromolecule in such a way that it either produces sodium cellulosate or it links to the molecules through the pulling forces. ADVANTAGES OF MERCERIZING  The mercerized fibers were able to absorb more water, and therefore absorb more dye. None of the imitations of silk has been more widely adopted than mercerized cotton. As Compared with cold impregnation the swelling behavior is considerably better and has a positive influence on the dimensional stability. However the P value of dobby weaves fabric appeared to be 0.190, which is higher than 0.050 in the process time period interaction, so process time period interaction does not have a statistically significant effect on the resistance to shrinkage of dobby weave fabric. A ratio of dyed to undyed fibers can then be used to determine the degree of mercerization. So that the impregnation becomes properly. YARN MERCERIZING IN CONTINUOUS SHEET (WARP) FORM: There are three types of mercerizing machine-. After mercerization, the alkali waste solution is often treated with an acid for neutralization of the waste treatment process. Disadvantages of Ammonia mercerization * Very costly equipment. Changes in the resistance to shrinkage in the directions of warp and weft in twill fabrics depending on process time period are shown in Figure 6 and 7, respectively. Hot mercerizing generally produces increased dye sorption as the result of the plastic nature of cotton and its response to tension. Two glucose units are considered to give the monomer of cotton. But, for the samples mercerized at temperature higher than 20°C increase in alkali only up to 240 g/l improved dimensional stability. * Jute and linen can be mercerized. Solid colors and intense, resistant to washing, rubbing, light, even after being washed several times.  On the DIMENSA MS the cloth is pinned onto the integrated stenter at the end of the retention compartment. In present work composite is fabricated using simple hand lay-up technique which involves following steps: 1. relatively circular when mercerised. It is observed that a softer handle is obtained on goods which are mercerized in grey state compared with mercerized after bleaching. a cotton fabric is treated with 25% NaOH solution then there occurs shrinkage The squeezing rollers are of 10” in dia, 36”in length and are covered with rubber. Six measurements were done on each sample according to the standard of BS EN 26330 and the average of them was taken. These properties directly contributed to the advantages of mercerized textile products (e.g. This gives the seersucker effect. Holding                                 : It was held and continuously rotated in the dock for 6 h. In the textile enterprise, the fabric was made to absorb the prescription above in order to be able to make it capable of dissolving in the water that has sizing which is in those fabrics that have been sized with the CMC sizing substance. The following are the If yarn twist is high then alkali doesn’t enter easily. Luster is obtained through the use of tension; and. The samples are washed, dried and compared visually or using a spectrophotometer. After this the residual alkali may be neutralized with a dilute acid, followed by washing with water to free the fabric from acid. 1. The machines and equipments used in the processes were as follows: Firstly, burning and desizing processes were applied on the fabrics. (Caustic Recovery Plant) for recycling of caustic. One of the known fiber properties of cotton is its softness. Natural fibres present important advantages such as low density, appropriate stiffness, good mechanical Google Scholar These charges are shown in the following figure. A wetting agent is included in the mercerizing liquor which reduces mercerization time as a result of successful, uniform and rapid penetration of NaOH. Mercerize definition, to treat (cotton yarns or fabric) with caustic alkali under tension, in order to increase strength, luster, and affinity for dye. Besides mercerization, he invented several styles of calico printing and prepared for the first time a sulphonated oil (known as Turkey red oil) ever since used in producing certain fast dyes. Then the fabric is dried washing in cold water. See more. In the measurements, the fabrics were marked with permanent marker with 35*35 cm gaps (in the direction of wefts and warps) and they were washed in the washing machine at 60°C. Not always is the whole fabric mercerized in piece-goods mercerization. In grey mercerization, a large amount of impurities find their way in mercerization liquor. It should be soluble in caustic soda solution. Cotton fiber possesses a variety of distinct properties, and we know there are plenty of people who want to dig a little deeper. this test depends The mercerization has the following advantages: Improving luster Obtaining a silky look Improving the Tensile strength Retaining a greater proportion of tensile strength after easy care finishing Obtaining improved Dimensional Stability fAdvantages of Mercerization contd Mercerized fabrics however Mercerisation is a textile finishing treatment for cellulose fabric and yarn, mainly cotton and flax, which improves dye uptake and tear strength, reduces fabric shrinkage, and imparts a silk -like luster. The method was developed in the 19th century by John Mercer and H.A. As seen in Table 8, 50 – 60% improvement was seen in the direction of warp compared to the raw fabric. This feature promotes closer to perfect mercerization, resulting in better size stability and drastic improvement in quality of dyeing, as well as excellent luster. During the process of scouring there occurs a lateral swelling of the While fabrics mercerized with 15-30% solution showed higher degree of mercerization, dye absorption, and fabric strength and elongation than the unmercerized fabric. Mercerization and liquid ammonia treatment were shown to improve the dyeability of all three fibers. Then the remainder of the acid is removed from the fabric by washing. Since the shrinkage in the fibers increases as the time period increases, the resistance to shrinkage in the weft appears to be higher. surface becomes more even and circular which gives a better reflection of light. By Igoo mercerized cotton was in extensive demand and the annual production and consumption have climbed every year since then. The characteristics of these fabrics are given in Table 1. The degree of cleanliness of the textile material is only determined by employing standard accepted testing methods and properly interpreting the data obtained. The yarn rotates in the alkali solution and stretched the guide rollers and at the same time squeezing rollers the yarn to ensure penetration. Generally the range of twist factor is 2.2-3.0. Tensile strength is higher when caustic concentration is 45-54°Tw and temperature is 17°C. In this condition the cloth is immersed in the caustic bath with the result that only the open figures are mercerized, the protected portions remaining plain cotton. not add to its lusture. The method was developed in the 19th century by John Mercer and H.A. A sample of the fabric is dyed in a 1% OWF dye bath and, after dyeing, is compared with a standard dyeing. Fig 11: Cellulose, the polymer of cotton, with a degree of polymerisation, About 5000 cellubiose units (i. e. n=5000). In hot mercerizing this is utilized, while in cold mercerizing it causes an energy consuming lye cooling process. Introduction Natural plant fibres are easily obtained in many tropical parts and are available throughout the world. It should enable the alkali to swell the cotton fiber rapidly. Humidity                  : (8 ± 2) %. The fabrics leave the recuperator through the nip of a pair of squeeze roller. mercerization. Washing condition is important after mercerization because the fabric will shrink when washed under slag condition.

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