Parasitism of photosynthetic dinoflagellates by three strains of Amoebophrya (Dinophyta): parasite survival, infectivity, generation time, and host specificity. NORSWater@cdc.gov 2 . Photo: Cori Gibble. Video. Unauthorized copying and replication of text, images, and tables in our homepage, are prohibited. Hyeong-Kyu Kwon, Seok-Jin Oh, Growth Response of the Dinoflagellate Akashiwo sanguinea in Relation to Temperature, Salinity and Irradiance, and its Advantage in Species Succession, Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment and … (, Legrand, C., Rengefors, K., Fistarol, G. O. and Granéli, E. (, Li, A. S., Stoecker, D. K. and Coats, D. W. (, Lovett, J. V., Ryuntyu, M. Y. and Liu, D. L. (, Mooney, B. D., de Salas, M., Hallegraeff, G. M. and Place, A. R. (, Peng, J. N., Place, A. R., Yoshida, W., Anklin, C. and Hamann, M. T. (, Place, A., Adolf, J., Bachvaroff, T., Zhang, H. and Lin, S. (, Place, A. R., Bowers, H. A., Bachvaroff, T. R., Adolf, J. E., Deeds, J. R. and Sheng, J. Therefore, it lacks a thick cellulose wall, the theca, common in other genera of dinoflagellates. Sea foam is a common feature in coastal regions, and can be caused by several factors. Type species . akashiwo (Japanese)= red tide. In general, this species is not considered to be toxic, and no toxicity or harmful activity has been verified in the IRL. Seafood Toxins. Moreover, we found that the toxicity of K. veneficum caused A. salina to avoid feeding on more toxic strains. We are grateful for the technical help from Dr. LX Shang and Ms. H Wang. Matsubara et al. Miller D, Pfreundt U, Hou S, Lott SC, Hess WR, Berman-Frank I Winter mixing impacts gene expression in marine microbial populations in the Gulf of Aqaba AME 80:223-242 | Full text in pdf format. The organism is unarmored. Cas Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, China, College of Earth And Planetary Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. The protist can produce mycosporine-like … 80, 209-222. et J. J. Lee) Coats, along with their Amoebophyra parasites. Click to pause, double-click to play. However, whether K. veneficum exhibited positive (stimulating) or negative (inhibiting) allelopathy at lower densities depended upon strains, co-culturing time duration, and the initial cell density ratio of test to target species. Akashiwo sanguinea, which has been shown to be toxic to aquatic animals recently (Xu et al., 2017), also displayed significant inhibiting effects on three strains of K. veneficum (KVBDH-1, KVND-1, and less potent in KV7+8) and stimulating effects on the strain KVPRE-1. Page last updated: 14 June 2011, Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce. (, Sheng, J., Malkiel, E., Katz, J., Adolf, J. E. and Place, A. R. (, Singh, D. P., Tyagi, M., Kumar, A., Thakur, J. and Kumar, A. firstname.lastname@example.org ACS Symposium Series 262, American Chemical Society. Biol. Then, the algicidal powder was added to algal cells at different concentrations, the toxicity for Akashiwo sanguinea was determined via dose response curve, as described in our previous study (Chen et al., 2006, Wang et al., 2015). Jessup DA, Miller, MA, Ryan, JP, Nevins, HM, Kerkering, HA et al. ml−1) significantly inhibited the growth of A. sanguinea, and the inhibitory effects varied among strains. A comprehensive insight into functional profiles of free-living microbial community responses to a toxic Akashiwo sanguinea bloom. ... What we do get is foam from kelp, and foam from a dinoflagellate called Akashiwo sanguinea. Hansen and Moestrup describe these features in detail and provide additional references. Although these blooms have been associated with harmful effects to fish and shellfish, the mechanism for toxicity has scantly been examined up tell now and as such is still unknown. 2.1 Study Area. Biol. Most research was done in the field. All experiments were performed in 10-mL culture tubes for 72 h under the same conditions used for maintaining cultures. Akashiwo sanguinea is a harmful—but not toxic—species that causes blooms around the world. A. sanguinea can produce mycosporine -like amino acids as water-soluble, surface-active substance ( surfactant) reduces the surface tension of the water. (, Heisler, J., Glibert, P. M., Burkholder, J. M., Anderson, D. M., Cochial, W., Dennison, W. C., Dortch, Q., Gobler, C. J. et al. (, Van Wagoner, R. M., Deeds, J. R., Tatters, A. O., Place, A. R., Tomas, C. R. and Wright, J. L. C. (, Wang, C. C., Yan, T. and Zhou, M. J. Heterosigma akashiwo is a species of microscopic algae of the class Raphidophyceae. In An Unusual Bloom of the dinoflagellate Akashiwo sanguinea off the Central Oregon USA, scientists wanted to find the rise and demise of a sudden algae bloom of the coast in Oregon. A., Terlizzi, D. E. and Place, A. R. (, Deeds, J. R., Terlizzi, D. E., Adolf, J. E., Stoecker, D. K. and Place, A. R. (, Gobler, C. J., Lobanov, A. V., Tang, Y. 2015-04-08 10:59:52 Susanne Busch - Updated media metadata for Akashiwo sanguinea_6.JPG ; 2015-04-08 10:46:58 Susanne Busch - Updated media metadata for Akashiwo sanguinea_6.JPG ; 2015-04-08 10:44:42 Susanne Busch - Added media: Akashiwo sanguinea_6.JPG ; 2014-09-26 12:25:32 Janina Kownacka - Updated media metadata for Akashiwo sanguinea_5.jpg Z., Qin, J. L., Duan, S. S. and Gobler, C. J. Most of these ultrastructural details are typically not visible in the light microscope, except the large clockwise spiral of the apical groove (not shown here) can rarely be discerned. OHHABS Algae, Algal Toxin, and Other Pathogens Lists . The central role of selenium in the biochemistry and ecology of the harmful pelagophyte. Experts say it’s not harmful to humans, but can kill fish. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0004550. 1).The NMS is a shallow estuary with extensive marshes protected from the Atlantic Ocean by a highly dynamic barrier beach with a single connection through Nauset Inlet .Salt Pond is roughly circular, with a surface area of 82,200 m 2, an average depth of 3.4 … A. sanguinea toxicity differed among the Chinese strains, and the hemolytic activity of 1 Chinese strain was 3‑fold greater than that of the US strain.  Akashiwo sanguinea (= Gymnodinium splendens) forms dense, patchy blooms in the Eastern Pacific, from California to Peru [Dugdale et al., 1977]. MOCHA project scientists documented the occurrence, spatial extent and ecological consequences of a rare albeit massive bloom of the dinoflagellate Akashiwo sanguinea in 2009-2010. (, Tang, Y. For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription. Because the algicidal compounds in the fermentation broth were relatively complex and algal lysis was the comprehensive result generated by several algicidal … This foam acts like a detergent, stripping away seabirds’ water resistance and causing them to become wet and hypothermic. This study examined the effects of temperature on the growth rates, cell volumes, and fatty acid concentrations and compositions of four harmful algal bloom species (HABs), Akashiwo sanguinea, Alexandrium tamarense, Chattonella ovata, and Prorocentrum minimum. The medium was prepared with filtered (0.22 μm membrane filter, Jingteng, China) … The toxicity of the four strains also varied among strains and showed a decreasing order completely coincided with their culturing histories in laboratory, which suggests K. veneficum may have lost the toxicity gradually during a long time of laboratory culturing. Akashiwo sanguinea is associated with harmful algal blooms ( red tides ), and is still the subject of research. Here, we report an investigation on the phagotrophy of K. veneficum using a clonal culture isolated from the coastal water of East China … As part of the discharge monitoring program, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency toxicity test methods are conducted on samples collected from the outfalls and receiving water twice a year, once during a storm event and once during dry weather. Microbiol. 2000. Consequently, these variations may contribute to their competitive capability and ecological effects of different K. veneficum populations. (, Xu, N., Wang, M., Tang, Y. Domoic Acid Toxicity Prediction (for cellular DA) shows the probability that the domoic acid concentration per Pseudo-nitzschia (i.e. Toxicity: No Bloom: Yes (Daugbjerg et al. ABSTRACT: Parasitic dinoflagellates of the genus Amoebophrya commonly infect free-living dino- flagellates, some of which cause toxic or otherwise harmful red tides. Mass stranding of marine birds caused by a surfactant-producing red tide. Hemolytic Toxicity of Three Important Harmful Microalgae Isolated from Pearl River Estuary. Akashiwo sanguinea was co-cultured with the four components of C. geminatum JX25. A comprehensive insights into functional profiles of free-living microbial community responses to a toxic Akashiwo sanguinea bloom. J. Larsen, Akashiwo sanguinea (Hiraska) Ge. However, Hara and Chihara (1987) described both specimens as one species, validly describing them as "H. akashiwo". (2009) reported extensive seabird mortality caused by surfactant-like protein exudates derived from A. sanguinea, which coated their feathers and neutralized natural water repellency and insulation. (, Prince, E. K., Myers, T. L. and Kubanek, J. Jessup et al. There are nucleotide sequence data for over four dozen samples identified as A. sanguinea at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/. No reports were found on the sexual cycle of A. sanguinea. Early Warning of Oregon HAB Events In July 2010, NOAA and Oregon partners forecasted rising algae cell and toxin levels nearshore, providing state officials advance warning of a coast-wide harmful algal bloom (HAB) event and prompting proactive shellfish testing. Ciguatoxigenic Dinoflagellates from the Caribbean Sea. Effect of temperature, salinity, and irradiance on the growth of the dinoflagellate Akashiwo sanguinea. These parasites prevent repro- duction of their hosts and kill infected cells on a time scale of days. 2007. In this study, we analyzed the carbonyl compounds from eight common HAB-forming species ( Akashiwo sanguinea, Karenia mikimotoi, Karlodinium veneficum, Margalefidinium polykrikoides, Prorocentrum donghaiense, P. minimum, Scrippsiella trochoidea , and Heterosigma akashiwo ) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in full scan and selected ion monitoring (SIM) modes. While not toxic, this marine plankton species has the ability to discolor the water and also produce a surfactant foam. The cingulum is approximately median and slightly descending. Akashiwo sanguinea (formerly Gymnodinium sanguineum, Gynodinium nelsonii, Gymnodinium splendens) is a dinoflagellate common to coastal marine and estuarine waters where it forms blooms. 2002. However, toxicity of mice was reported by Tindall et al. Three important harmful algal bloom causative species, Prymnesium parvum (strain number: JX12), Karlodinium veneficum (strain number: JX24), and Akashiwo sanguinea (strain number: JX14) were isolated and identified from the Pearl River Estuary (see Figure 1). For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com, This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (, Long-term changes of ichthyoplankton communities in an Iberian estuary are driven by varying hydrodynamic conditions, Scyphozoan jellyfish (Cnidaria, Medusozoa) from Amazon coast: distribution, temporal variation and length–weight relationship, The sediment akinete bank links past and future blooms of Nostocales in a shallow lake, Thermal performance of marine diatoms under contrasting nitrate availability, Cladoceran body size distributions along temperature and trophic gradients in the conterminous USA, https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model, Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic. Washington, DC. Change History. Akashiwo sanguinea is a species of marine dinoflagellates well known for forming blooms that result in red tides. For questions, comments or contributions, please contact us at: 112: 196-219. Z., Zhang, Q., Duan, S. and Gobler, C. J. Sci. Among the significantly changed genes, 67 showed significant (p < 0.05) correlations with A. sanguinea density; genes within C, N, S, P cycling and stress categories are shown in Fig. Zhaohe Luo, Weidong Yang, Chui Pin Leaw, Vera Pospelova, Gwenael Bilien, Guat Ru Liow, Po Teen Lim, Haifeng Gu, Cryptic diversity within the harmful dinoflagellate Akashiwo sanguinea in coastal Chinese waters is related to differentiated ecological niches, Harmful … (2007) characterize this species as eurythermal and euryhaline. 40: 49-60. The highest concentrations occurred between the Pajaro River and Capitola Beach. Akashiwo sanguinea. Little is known regarding how harmful algal bloom species respond to different temperatures in terms of fatty acid production. 1. Evidence that A. sanguinea … To give a sense of the range, the highest cellular concentrations seen in the environment have not yet exceeded 200 pg/cell in the most toxic cells. Brown Tides Macroalgae . Daugbjerg, N, Hansen, G, Larsen, J & Ø Moestrup. Effects of temperature, salinity, and irradiance on the growth of the dinoflagellate Akashiwo sanguinea. This species lives as single cells. Bockstahler, KR & DW Coats. Researchers explored the causation of the algal bloom of Akashiwo sanguinea which was very harmful to coastal birds along the coast of Oregon. Bull. Phylogeny of some of the major genera of dinoflagellates based on ultrastructure and partial LSU rDNA sequence data, including the erection of three new genera of unarmoured dinoflagellates. 342: 226-230. (, Jonsson, P. R., Pavia, H. and Toth, G. (, Kempton, J. W., Lewitus, A. J., Deeds, J. R., Law, J. M. and Place, A. R. (, Kong, R. Y. C., Giesy, J. P., Wu, R. S. S., Chen, E. X. H., Chiang, M. W. L., Lim, P. L., Yuen, B. There were no consistent sterol profiles that characterized the genus Amoebophyra. A comprehensive insight into functional profiles of free-living microbial community responses to a toxic Akashiwo sanguinea bloom Researchers found that the blooms are most common during mid to late summer, indicating that A. sanguinea does well in the warmer temperatures and when upwelling is sporadic and stratified conditions remain. Certain species of mixotrophic dinoflagellates can be affected by light intensity and nutrient conditions . In ventral view (Figure 1) the epicone is bluntly rounded; the hypocone has two prominent posterior lobes and an incised sulcus. (, Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. Published by Oxford University Press. Akashiwo sanguinea is exclusively planktonic and has a worldwide distribution in temperate and tropical waters. Reports of toxicity in A. sanguinea are mostly anecdotal and based on its abundance in natural populations in which mortality has occurred. Noctiluca? Whether or not this species is toxic has yet to be determined, but it is thought that fish kills most likely occur because of large-scale blooms that result in low oxygen levels in the water. The effect of different temperatures … In China, the ﬁrst In China, the ﬁrst A. sanguinea bloom was recorded in Yantai in 1998. Aquat. In culture, several size morphologies are sometimes seen that may have reproductive significance or simply represent phenotypic variability. It is nearly always found in coastal and estuarine locations. doi: .10.1016/j.hal.2008.10.001 . how toxic are the algal cells themselves) is at or above 10 picograms per cell (pg/cell). The 0.22-µm filters with bacterial cells were then stored at … — Katy Yeh, Bay Nature staffer. (, Krock, B., Busch, J. Sci Rep. 2016 Oct 5;6:34645. doi: 10.1038/srep34645. A., Tillmann, U., García-Camacho, F., Sánchez-Mirón, A., Gallardo-Rodríguez, J. J., López-Rosales, L., Andree, K. B. et al. It’s called Akashiwo Sanguinea. The bacterial C degradation genes (AceA-isocitrate lyase, pectinase and phenol oxidase) showed significantly positive correlations with A. sanguinea … Phycologia 39: 302-317. Akashiwo sanguinea (formerly Gymnodinium sanguineum, Gynodinium nelsonii, Gymnodinium splendens) is a dinoflagellate common to coastal marine and estuarine waters where it forms blooms. Caiyun Yang, Yi Li, Yanyan Zhou, Xueqian Lei, Wei Zheng, Yun Tian, Joy D. Van Nostrand, Zhili He, Liyou Wu, Jizhong Zhou, Tianling Zheng, A comprehensive insight into functional profiles of free-living microbial community responses to a toxic Akashiwo sanguinea bloom, Scientific Reports, 10.1038/srep34645, 6, … 118: 2007: Two-generation reproductive toxicity study of tributyltin chloride in male rats. This document lists algae , algal toxins, and other pathogens in the One Health Harmful Algal Bloom (, Xu, N., Tang, Y. (1984). 2009. The Akashiwo sanguinea lives as single cells and are shell-less. Is the foam toxic to marine life? The initial cell densities for C. geminatum and A. sanguinea were 500 cells mL −1. The dorsal side is convex and the ventral side is somewhat concave. Blooms of Akashiwo sanguinea frequently break out around the world, causing huge economic losses to the aquaculture industry and seriously damaging coastal ecosystems. The prediction was verified when further testing revealed that levels of the HAB toxin domoic acid et J. J. Lee) Coats, along with their Amoebophyra parasites. The cell has a large number of elongate yellow or brown chloroplasts that radiate from the cell center (Figures 2, 3). Akashiwo was one of four new genera that was redefined using the analysis. This is one of the largest dinoflagellates, with a length about 40-80 µm and a width of 30-50 µm. Use your mouse to rollover the terms in purple for their definitions. If this feature is not supported by your browser, please refer to the accompanying glossary for terminology. Rep. 6 , 34645; doi: 10.1038/srep34645 (2016). Hyeong-Kyu Kwon, Seok-Jin Oh, Growth Response of the Dinoflagellate Akashiwo sanguinea in Relation to Temperature, Salinity and Irradiance, and its Advantage in Species Succession, Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment and Safety, 10.7837/kosomes.2014.20.1.001, 20, 1, (1-10), (2014). J. Eukaryot. The initial cell densities for C. geminatum and A. sanguinea were 500 cells mL −1. Sanguinea=Adjective (Latin), blood-red (Stearn 1973), describing the resulting color of the water after a red tide event. T Matsubara, S Nagasoe, Y Yamasaki, T Shikata, Y Shimasaki, Y Oshima, ... Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 342 (2), 226-230, 2007. Adolf, J. E., Bachvaroff, T. R., Krupatkina, D. N., Nonogaki, H., Brown, P. J. P., Lewitus, A. J., Harvey, H. R. and Place, A. R. (, Adolf, J. E., Bachvaroff, T. and Place, A. R. (, Adolf, J. E., Krupatkina, D., Bachvaroff, T. and Place, A. R. (, Ajani, P., Hallegraeff, G. and Pritchard, T. (, An, M., Johnson, I. R. and Lovett, J. V. (, Bachvaroff, T. R., Adolf, J. E. and Place, A. R. (, Bergholtz, T., Daugbjerg, N., Moestrup, Ø. and Fernández-Tejedor, M. (, Cai, P., He, S., Zhou, C., Place, A. R., Haq, S., Ding, L., Chen, H., Jiang, Y. et al. They have a large number of yellow or brown chloroplasts that radiate from the cell center with a nucleus in the middle that is distinguishable by appearing as a clear area. These results together suggest that the production of toxins by K. veneficum provides an advantage in proliferation to the species via avoiding predation, but the allelopathic effects may not play an important role in initiating blooms of the species. Acute toxicity of the cosmopolitan bloom-forming dinoflagellate Akashiwo sanguinea to finfish, shellfish, and zooplankton AME 80:209-222 | Full text in pdf format. The allelopathic and toxic potencies among K. veneficum strains were not parallel, which indicates that the allelochemicals and fish-killing toxins of K. veneficum may be different chemicals, or the same responsible chemicals functioned in different modes to algae and animals. Akashiwo sanguinea also showed allelopathic effects on K. veneficum, with varying intensities among the four strains of K. veneficum. The dinoflagellate foam is the one that caused bird mortalities in both 2007 and 2009. In the literature, the species currently known as A. sanguinea is treated under several names, some of which reﬂect renaming of the species, others are synonyms, including most recently Gymnodinium sanguineum Change in Reports of Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) 1970 . Z., Turanov, A. Change History. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation of China [61 533 011]; NSFC-Shandong Joint Fund for Marine Ecology and Environmental Sciences [U1606404]; the National Science Foundation of China [41 476 142, 41 506 143]; the Scientific and Technological Innovation Project of the Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science [2016ASKJ02]; the National Key R&D Program of China [2017YFC1404300]; and Creative Team Project of the Laboratory for Marine Ecology and Environmental Science, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology (LMEES-CTSP-2018-1). HAB implications. 2000) Etymology . Reproduction of the phytoplankton species is primarily asexual. In cross section, the cell is ovoid with strong dorso-ventral compression. Allelopathy in harmful algae: a mechanism to compete for resources? Harmful Algae 8:454–462. It is a swimming marine alga that episodically forms toxic surface aggregations known as harmful algal bloom. The dinoflagellate Akashiwo sanguinea will benefit from future climate change: The interactive effects of ocean acidification, warming and high irradiance on photophysiology and hemolytic activity Otherwise, vegetative cell division is the normal means of reproduction. 38: 520-528. They possess a trailing flagellum, which can often be longer than the cell itself.Their patterns of movement tend to be very consistent, constantly moving utili… (Smithsonian) They have an epicone which is slightly rounded, the hypocone possesses two prominent posterior lobes. A., Zhang, Y., Doblin, M., Taylor, G. T., Sanudo-Wilhelmy, S. A. et al. Genes linked to the Akashiwo sanguinea community. The role of photosynthesis and food uptake for the growth of marine mixotrophic dinoflagellates, Eutrophication and harmful algal blooms: a scientific consensus, Formation of harmful algal blooms cannot be explained by allelopathic interactions, Development of a marine fish model for studying in vivo molecular responses in ecotoxicology, LC-MS/MS detection of karlotoxins reveals new variants in strains of the marine dinoflagellate, A survey of the sterol composition of the marine dinoflagellates, Allelopathy in phytoplankton—biochemical, ecological and evolutionary aspects, Allelopathy, chemical communicatin, and plant defense, Survey for karlotoxin production in 15 species of gymnodinioid dinoflagellates (Kareniaceae, Dinophyta), Structure and absolute configuration of karlotoxin-2, an ichthyotoxin from the marine dinoflagellate, Allelopathic compounds of a red tide dinoflagellate have species-specific and context-dependent impacts on phytoplankton, Effects of harmful algal blooms on competitors: allelopathic mechanisms of the red tide dinoflagellate, A dinoflagellate exploits toxins to immobilize prey prior to ingestion. PLoS ONE 4: e4550. Under some culture conditions, a mucoid cyst may be formed (Steidinger & Tangen 1997). Akashiwo sanguinea was co-cultured with the four components of C. geminatum JX25. dinoﬂagellates Akashiwo sanguinea is a conspicuous harmful, but not toxic species (Kudela et al., 2005). Spatial and temporal aspects of mixotrophy in Chesapeake Bay dinoflagellates. 1. While hypothermia can be fatal, birds that wash ashore alive often respond well to rehabilitation efforts. 1984. (1984). Toxicity was enhanced by increased nutrient supply, suggesting that this species … Search for other works by this author on: Laboratory for Marine Ecology and Environmental Science, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao, China, Center for Ocean Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, China, Institute of Hydrobiology, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China, Species specificity and potential roles of, Historic overview of algal blooms in marine and estuarine waters of New South Wales, Australia, Mathematical-modeling of allelopathy-biological response to allelochemicals and its interpretation, Pigmentation and morphology of a marine gyrodinium (Dinophyceae) with a major carotenoid different from peridinin and fucoxanthin, Harmful Algae Management and Mitigation Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (Singapore), Sterol-specific membrane interactions with the toxins from, Effects of size and concentration of food particles on the feeding behavior of the marine planktonic copepod.
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