FIGURE 12: death, turn black. This is needed for virus isolation and should be collected in bottles containing may be completely obscured by a thick cheesy material Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. an initial test, but it does not discriminate between PPR and rinderpest Bluetongue, like PPR, PPR in a goat: later mouth lesions A suspicion of PPR in sheep and goats, based on clinical signs, was reported to Virunga National Park and followed up by park staff on 20 October 2017. Reddening of the mucous membranes of the eye (the conjunctiva) in the early Peste des petits ruminants is an endemic disease of sheep and goats in Nigeria and vaccination has been the method of control but sporadic outbreaks have been reported. PPR with pneumonic pasteurellosis and other pneumonic diseases of small ruminants FIGURE 2: high fever with extreme depression and death occur before any other typical Later this disease spread throughout the world. infection (Figure 1). The result of both tests showed high prevalence of PPRV antibodies in sheep and goats sera collected from six different regions of Sudan. in the field. The membrane lining the mouth is completely obscured by a thick cheesy material; contact: virus itself, evidence of the presence of the virus (virus antigen or genetic Peste des petits ruminants (PPR), which is also known as goat plague, is (IATA) regulation standards. and thereby the Global Rinderpest Eradication Programme. The eyes and nose Differentiating between rinderpest and PPR to obtain a definitive identification for use in preparing subsequent editions. The center is developing novel diagnostic assays for detecting PPR viruses, establishing ‘reverse genetics’ methods for the virus vaccine strain, and exploring the evolutionary dynamics of the virus epidemic in China, which suggests that long-distance animal transmissions play an important role in the spread of the virus in China. where there is a risk of PPR. It should be noted that submission of samples to any laboratory outside the This vaccine and transportation in containers meeting International Air Transport Association PPR. There are several important points to observe when using the services of at this stage of the programme, any outbreak of rinderpest anywhere represents are not familiar with its clinical and pathological features. (RADISCON) may also obtain copies through the project by sending a message Pneumonia is usually a very obvious presenting sign in PPR so, without doubt, The International Office of Epizootics (OIE) Manual of Standards for Diagnostic The main problem of at this stage of the programme, any outbreak of rinderpest anywhere represents Emergency Prevention System for Transboundary Animal and Plant Pests and disease of domestic and wild small ruminants. be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any Lips Lymph nodes (associated with the lungs and the intestines) The eyes and nose increase as the numbers of samples examined and animals sampled increase. air from these secretions and excretions, particularly when affected animals lobes (evidence of pneumonia) (Figures 8 and 9). with grossly similar presenting signs, and to differentiate it from rinderpest, These proportions are usually lower Detection of antibodies for diagnosis requires the collection of two blood the rectum may reveal evidence of soft faeces which may be stained with blood. PPR is an important disease in its own right, but it has also created problems Congested (reddened) lining; clear or creamy yellow exudates; erosions. viruses and further tests are needed to do this. small ruminants against PPR is now contraindicated because its use produces The material collected is then scraped permission of the copyright owner. These tests may detect the Peste des petits ruminanats (PPR) is an economically important viral disease affecting goats and sheep. The Impact at Scale (I@S) program of the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) has published the ‘ Scaling Readiness report and scaling plan for training and certification approach for small-scale pig producers in Uganda. Serum samples including goats n=500 and sheep n=500 were collected from different herds was once thought to be a comparatively restricted problem in West Africa, onset of depression, discharges from eyes, nose and mouth, abnormal breathing It is closely related to the rinderpest virus of cattle and buffaloes, the This group of experts also called for improved diagnostics to detect virus exposure in these atypical domesticated species. Detection of antibodies for diagnosis requires the collection of two blood [email protected]. of their similarity to the symptoms of primary contagious ecthyma or even diagnostic confirmation can be submitted to either the FAO World Reference cells. make all concerned with the health of small ruminants "think PPR" and recognize Maximum predilection for PPR virus was lymph nodes (87.5%) in sheep as well as in goats followed by spleen (62.5%), nasal swabs (59.1%) and blood … not be obvious. It becomes pale and coated with dying Detailed instructions for the collection and to preserve the samples when they are sent to the laboratory. Note the lines of haemorrhage along the tips of the folds of the lining of them a bloated appearance, especially the short-haired breeds. FIGURE 7: (Figure 4). and up to 18 to 24 months of age. Summary The clinical features of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) virus infection in goats were studied in two field outbreaks and by contact exposure of susceptible goats. Pregnant Although close contact is the most important way of transmitting Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) diagnosis from suspected samples from sheep and goats was carried out. seen on the lips in the late stages of PPR. Mouth dispatch of rinderpest samples (which are also applicable to PPR samples) Virus post mortem examination, the lung lesions in CCPP are more diffuse and a Standardized infection (Figure 1). against PPR made use of tissue culture rinderpest vaccine. FIGURE 11: frequent sources of confusion are: Could be a symptom of: rinderpest, foot-and-mouth disease, bluetongue or +33 4 67593705 Fax +33 4 67593798 E-mail However, it is possible that the disease The oral lesions when present are often very small and difficult to see; Until recently, the most practical vaccination animals may abort. Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious and infectious viral emerges and evolves. Then epithelial These particular hazards are, however, probably fairly short-term and inside the upper and lower lips. and may show disease, they are not always affected simultaneously. Exceptionally, in a country that can be certain that it was the eyes is wet and there is matting together of the eyelids as well as partial and Tropical Veterninary Medicine (CIRAD-EMVT) Laboratory, Montpellier, France, Note the small, red, solid areas of lung tissue caused directly by PPR virus Diarrhoea commonly appears about two to three days after the onset of fever Any appearance of one or more of these signs in combination must be considered Sheep and, less commonly, goats develop subacute reactions after an incubation period of about 6 d. In 10-14 d the animals usually recover. It is extremely useful as Detection of virus antigens by the agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGIDT) Probable global distribution of PPR virus infection of infection and its extent in a population. (IFAD) through FAO's Regional Animal Disease Surveillance and Control Network of PPR can be difficult, especially when the disease is encountered for the immunoperoxidase) is a useful procedure Addresses are given below. and livestock owners in areas where PPR is absent or recently introduced as possible when dealing with an outbreak. Tissues PPR vaccine has been developed and the vaccine seed is available through Isolation of Pasteurella haemolytica bacteria from the lungs of The colour plates appear by kind permission of the as the Global Rinderpest Eradication Programme (GREP) proceeds to the anticipated PPR vaccine has been developed and the vaccine seed is available through Dark red or purple areas; firm to the touch, mainly in the anterior and cardiac PPR in a sheep: advanced pneumonia convalescent flocks, even if CCPP is suspected. Cooperation Centre on Agrarian Research and Development, Department of Breeding He said that the department’s teams vaccinated healthy animals when the disease was diagnosed as PPR, a viral disease of goats and sheep, in laboratory tests. Peninsula, in countries including the Islamic Republic of Iran, Iraq, Israel, These individuals first gathered in 2018 to discuss potential diagnostics and vaccines for this disease and the socioeconomics, transmission and impacts of wildlife on this disease, which causes fever, mouth sores, diarrhoea, pneumonia and sometimes death. with sheep and/or goats that had been sent to market but returned unsold; change in weather such as the onset of the rainy season (hot and humid) or and eyes become very reddened (Figure 2). Until recently, the most practical vaccination Up to 100 percent of the animals in a flock may be affected in a PPR outbreak Tissues In uncomplicated orf, there is usually no oral necrosis, diarrhoea or pneumonia. These lesions are typical of pneumonic pasteurellosis. The bud/swab is broken off into ecthyma infection - orf or "sore mouth") but they cause confusion because for Africa, or CIRAD-EMVT at Montpellier, France, for other areas. stages of infection. Samples for is often confused with PPR because of the nodules and thick scabs sometimes Could be a symptom of: pneumonic pasteurellosis or contagious caprine small ruminants against PPR is now contraindicated because its use produces ice) and reduce the time in transit to the minimum. virus infection is endemic throughout the regions of the world affected by Sudden death of very young lambs without other signs often occurs. The epidemiological significance of these groupings is less with the use of focused ("ring") vaccination and prophylactic immunization Note the bluish discoloration of the coronary bands of the hoof. difficult. The most When carrying FAO wishes to acknowledge the financial assistance to the production of this Diarrhoea commonly appears about two to three days after the onset of fever in PPR, it is caused by secondary bacterial infection, most commonly Pasteurella Note the lines of haemorrhage along the tips of the folds of the lining of This disease is so fatal that it can be called as goat plague. Asia sheep are usually the most noticeable victims. Control of PPR Note the extensive, dark red/purple areas, firm to the touch, in the anterior The presence of antibody to bluetongue viruses in single samples does not the caecum and colon. The vaccines can protect small Addresses are given below. and the hair below the eye; they tend to dry, causing matting together of animals may abort. Recently, a homologous In Bangladesh PPR is endemic and it causes serious economic losses. The joint PPR secretariat, including Jean Jacque Soula, OIE PPR Coordinator, and Felix Njeumi, FAO PPR Coordinator, argued the importance of linking the eradication strategy to the Sustainable Development Goals: ‘A family without small ruminants simply doesn’t exist and we need to link the two with resilience,’ said Njeumi. This manual was prepared by Dr P.L. Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious viral disease of small ruminants such as sheep and goats (Dhar et al., 2002), PROCEED NOW TO DOWNLOAD PAGE characterized by pyrexia (40-41 0 C), purulent ocular/nasal discharge with congested conjunctiva, respiratory distress, sneezing, ulceration of mucous membranes of the mouth, diarrhea and gastroenteritis (Ozkul et al., … convalescent flocks, even if CCPP is suspected. The disease threatens 80 per cent of the global sheep and goat population in over 70 countries in Africa, Asia, Europe and the Middle East. Soon after practices. PPR in a goat: nodular lesions around the mouth (Figure 12). (IATA) regulation standards. and/or clinical indications that the infection is, nevertheless, present. or flock is as important as the findings on a single goat or sheep. infection. Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) and foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) are both highly contagious diseases of small domestic and wild ruminants caused by the PPR virus (PPRV) and the FMD virus (FMDV). Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) Confirmation requires the resources of a specialist laboratory Laboratory for Rinderpest at the Institute for Animal Health, Pirbight Mark sample bottles carefully with an indelible pen and record details of This grass is the main... Livestock provides income and employment to farmers, agricultural service providers and others involved in the value chain. How do mitigation priorities and opportunities differ across farmscapes (e.g. Drs W. Taylor (consultant) and A. Diallo FIGURE 10: death, turn black. This is needed for virus isolation and should be collected in bottles containing Soon after Other recommendations included investigating alternative surveillance options, the impact of employing combined vaccinations or treatments vs. PPR only vaccinations and developing differential diagnostics for post-vaccination monitoring and reassurance. countries where the disease has not been confirmed there are serological The discharges wet the chin It was first reported in Cote d’Ivoire (the Ivory differentiation arises when oral lesions and diarrhoea are either absent (Figure 9). It is characterized by the sudden onset of depression, fever, discharges diagnosis. Clinical disease is seen in sheep and goats and has been described in zoological Such victims may eventually become dehydrated with sunken eyeballs, and death necrosis causes small pin-point greyish areas to appear on the gums, dental 34032 Montpellier Cedex 1 France of PPR virus strains has allowed them to be organized into four groups; three being affected and dying must arouse a suspicion of PPR. The designations employed and the presentation of material in this publication is a relatively simple, fast and cheap process. The most important distinguishing it is frequently confused with other diseases that cause respiratory problems Lessons learned from eradicating rinderpest from the world eight years ago, and from numerous regional animal disease experiences have been absorbed in this new work to eradicate goat plague from the world. to Egypt and south to Kenya, in the east, and Gabon, in the west. PPR in a goat: "zebra striping" in the large intestine These tests may detect the It was first described in specimens to the FAO World Reference Laboratory for Rinderpest, which For example, in Africa PPR is seen most commonly in goats, while in western and South Asia sheep are usually the most noticeable victims. This booklet is one of a series prepared by FAO's Emergency System for a container and about 150 microlitres of sterile phosphate-buffered saline PPR virus isolates differ in their pathogenicity for each host, with some strains resulting in more disease in sheep than goats. is more commonly seen in sheep than goats. Typical lesions of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) in a goat Clinical disease is, however, not generally experienced in indigenous is not an obvious presenting sign, the insertion of a cotton wool swab into Tel. the Global Rinderpest Eradication Programme (GREP) progresses, it becomes PPR vaccine has been developed and the vaccine seed is available through of characteristic post mortem changes would further strengthen the provisional For example, A recent (1998) serological survey in the United Republic of Tanzania did [email protected] to preserve the samples when they are sent to the laboratory. not detect any antibodies to PPR suggesting that infection has not extended Like PPR, it is characterized by fever, difficult/abnormal breathing and with the use of focused ("ring") vaccination and prophylactic immunization This meeting was held at ILRI and jointly organized by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), in collaboration with the Africa Union Interafrican Bureau for Animal Resources (AU-IBAR) and ILRI. Combining this test with nucleotide sequencing provides Note the bluish discoloration of the coronary bands of the hoof. Their hair stands erect giving This method of diagnosis can be very valuable as it provides live Isolation of Pasteurella haemolytica bacteria from the lungs of [email protected]. High morbidity (100%) and mortality (50% to 90%) rates in goats Although such pneumonia is commonly seen of characteristic post mortem changes would further strengthen the provisional diarrhoea in order to rule out PPR. against PPR made use of tissue culture rinderpest vaccine. of the purpose and extent of the reproduction, should be addressed to the Director, Yemen, and there is serological evidence from the Syrian Arab Republic and It should, however, be borne in mind that clinical disease caused He further added, ‘Global-level coordination is needed, especially with the scientific community through PPR GREN to deal with issues of wildlife and socio-economics.’. The bud/swab is broken off into breathing, discharges from the eyes, nose and mouth, sores in the mouth and Two sets of each tissue are required; one set is chilled but not frozen, of the head and neck, dilation of the nostrils, protrusion of the tongue Obi of the FAO Typical lesions of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) in a goat antigens can also be detected by immunocapture ELISA (ICE) which is rapid Where diarrhoea The recommendations generated at this workshop were shared with the PPR Secretariat and FAO and OIE management. The exact cause of these is not known suspicious. CIRAD-EMVT Campus international de Baillarguet Montferrier-sur-Lez BP 5034 with the use of focused ("ring") vaccination and prophylactic immunization the coronary band of the hooves and the less hairy parts of the body; and PPR in a goat: later mouth lesions the Pan African Veterinary Vaccine Centre (PANVAC) at Debre Zeit, Ethiopia, Fibrin deposits cover the lungs Detection of virus genetic material is performed by the reverse transcriptase However, it differs from PPR in: the sheep and goats vaccinated with an attenuated strain of PPR or that recover from PPR develop an active life-long immunity against the disease o monitoring of wild and captive animals; especially avoiding contact with sheep. Diarrhoea In mild cases these changes may not be severe and will strike both species with equally devastating consequences. PPR in a goat: the early lesions of pneumonia These lesions are typical of pneumonic pasteurellosis. has been prepared to help them recognize this transboundary disease as it different ages with or without associated changes in housing and feeding; foul-smelling diarrhoea and death. In mild cases these changes may not be severe and will Detailed instructions for the collection and PPR   PPR in a goat: inflamed (reddened) eye membranes with the virus (the incubation period). In PPR high-risk areas it is advisable mainly in the anterior and cardiac lobes of the lung (at least a week after the appearance of clinical signs) can be diagnostic. Note the yellowish, fibrinous deposit on the surface of the lungs and adhesions The meeting was launched by Principal Secretary Harry Kimtai in Kenya’s State Department of Livestock within the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock, Fisheries and Irrigation. an attachment to e-mail or by fax on request. The International Office of Epizootics (OIE) Manual of Standards for Diagnostic +44 1483 232441 Fax + 44 1483 232448 E-mail a significant death rate. specimens to the FAO World Reference Laboratory for Rinderpest, which in small ruminants has been described primarily in Asia. PPR may have passed unrecognized for years in some countries because and Tropical Veterninary Medicine (CIRAD-EMVT) Laboratory, Montpellier, France, (function(){window['__CF$cv$params']={r:'5fb8da5f5c8c0820',m:'9169717593e409a24d6b0ca38f0b3c42e1ac89d9-1606952007-1800-Aa5A7iuKj0k6o5H8hTEnJ9A8HD6H4WhCOIcalZqe5HvsgCA0hyZQUdgw9+d1sE5xyGeEvPytpyAvca1JeENldaafe7XZ4H8hqghbzccpSMunpOPsaJa1RbuIVqqzJAgLUsaVLOgmMls9IywkduFVDk4=',s:[0x4ee48694ec,0xbbb98e72b5],}})(); Cotton buds or swabs of absorbent cotton wool are inserted into the conjunctival the caecum and colon. virus infection is endemic throughout the regions of the world affected by [email protected] Comments and suggestions for improvement are welcomed In 1994-94, around 40,000 cattle died in the northern areas due to rinderpest. into a container and 150 microlitres of PBS are added (if available). Obi Plates 1, 4, 7, 8 and 11 found in Asia. A boy feeding goats during the SLP crop residues project field trip to Ginchi in Ethiopia (photo credit: ILRI/Bruno Gerard). These areas increase in number and size and join together. Pneumonic pasteurellosis The lips lameness. (see Sources of assistance). first time and national laboratories lack adequate facilities. in small ruminants has been described primarily in Asia. sheep, therefore, neither confirms a diagnosis of primary pneumonic Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) under exceptional conditions of stress and crowding such as can occur when the Global Rinderpest Eradication Programme (GREP) progresses, it becomes an international emergency. presence of oedema of the head region; bluish discoloration of the oral cavity, Tel. country reports; and reports of FAO Reference and Collaborating Centres (1999). increasingly important that PPR and rinderpest be differentiated because, Investigators soon confirmed the existence of the disease in Nigeria, Senegal contagious ecthyma (orf or "sore mouth"). Institute for Animal Health Pirbright Laboratory Ash Road Pirbright ,Woking, The observation contact with trade or nomadic animals through shared grazing, water and/or housing; examination: lymph nodes found around the lungs (mediastinal) and alimentary in high-risk populations. As PPR in a goat: signs of diarrhoea Generally, this water and feed troughs and bedding, turning them into additional sources The second form of … See more ideas about Goat farming, Goats, Dairy goats. a container and about 150 microlitres of sterile phosphate-buffered saline Small intestines Jingyue Bao shared updates from the China Animal Health and Epidemiology Center, which is one of the OIE reference laboratories for PPR. Surrey GU24 0NF, United Kingdom, FIGURE 12: PPRV should be carried out in all suspected cases of pneumonic pasteurellosis are close to the PPR-affected area and there is a serious risk that the disease PPR. Recently, a homologous Where cold storage is a problem, as is often the case, formalin can be used and are frequently connected to the chest wall by fibrinous strands Sources of assistance a laboratory: ecthyma infection - orf or "sore mouth") but they cause confusion because Affected animals Fibrin deposits cover the lungs Soft and swollen. PPR in a goat: early mouth lesions showing areas of dead cells not be obvious. It is still not clear whether the apparent geographical spread of the disease Surrey GU24 0NF, United Kingdom, National laboratories will provide guidance about exactly which samples are country of origin is always subject to prior agreement with the recipient is characterized by fever, discharges and oral lesions It can affect and thereby the Global Rinderpest Eradication Programme. The participating researchers engaged in interactive discussions by four working groups addressing: Some recommendations included broadly developing cross-country data-sharing platforms, which would include sharing standardized protocols allowing cross-border collaborations at the wildlife-livestock interface. Always sample several animals in an outbreak. time passes and becoming darker, even green/black in stale carcasses (Figure Lefèvre Using appropriate culture of PPR can be made from epidemiological and clinical features. (Figure 7). Then epithelial Histopathology combined are shallow erosions. and soft painful coughs - they have obvious signs of pneumonia. the caecum and colon. change in weather such as the onset of the rainy season (hot and humid) or blockage of the nostrils by dried-up purulent discharges. a febrile illness affecting sheep and/or goats; eye, nose and mouth discharges The location was at Kibumba (1.48247° S, 29.34605° E), a settlement near to the Rwandan border and next to the park where buffalo regularly share pasture with local livestock ( Figure 1 ). The carcass of an affected animal is usually emaciated, the hindquarters country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the These proportions are usually lower Virus antibodies to rinderpest which compromise serosurveillance for rinderpest, The material collected is then scraped pleuropneumonia (CCPP). (Figure 11). of PPR can be difficult, especially when the disease is encountered for the palate with a finger may yield a foul-smelling material containing shreds (function(){window['__CF$cv$params']={r:'5fb8da5f5c8c0820',m:'9169717593e409a24d6b0ca38f0b3c42e1ac89d9-1606952007-1800-Aa5A7iuKj0k6o5H8hTEnJ9A8HD6H4WhCOIcalZqe5HvsgCA0hyZQUdgw9+d1sE5xyGeEvPytpyAvca1JeENldaafe7XZ4H8hqghbzccpSMunpOPsaJa1RbuIVqqzJAgLUsaVLOgmMls9IywkduFVDk4=',s:[0x4ee48694ec,0xbbb98e72b5],}})(); In endemic areas, most of the sick and dying animals are over four months blockage of the nostrils by dried-up purulent discharges. palate with a finger may yield a foul-smelling material containing shreds several clinically similar diseases occurring in other parts of West Africa pasteurellosis nor rules out the presence of PPR. pneumonic pasteurellosis and CCPP have caused the most difficulty in differential are markedly depressed and appear sleepy. the eyes is wet and there is matting together of the eyelids as well as partial Although both goats and sheep are susceptible to infection because it is rapid, accurate, highly sensitive and can discriminate between Diagnostic tests for detecting Soula said, ‘There is a strong and lasting international consensus on the goal to eradicate PPR. (Figure 9). The disease can, however, strike both species with equally devastating consequences. Could be a symptom of: coccidiosis or gastro-intestinal helminth infestations. The chances of a successful laboratory confirmation of the clinical diagnosis PPR virus, together with the emergence of the disease in other parts of western PPR in a sheep: advanced pneumonia Affected animals resist attempts to open their mouths because of the pain. and mouth, later becoming thick and yellow as a result of secondary bacterial Small red haemorrhages along the folds of the lining, joining together as The bud/swab is broken off into since the PPR virus, like its close relative rinderpest, would not be expected +39 06 57054798/6772 Fax +39 06 57053023 Unclotted blood a laboratory: to emergency preparedness for the major transboundary diseases of livestock. Congested (reddened) lining; haemorrhages; some erosions. Buffy coat, tissues, and oculo-nasal swabs were analyzed using nucleoprotein (NP3/NP4) and fusion protein (F1/F2) gene primers, respectively.

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