7. 2. 3. Classification of resins is also aided by the fact that diterpenoids and triterpenoids are not found together in the same resins. GLYCOSIDES. 3. 2. Based on the principle of separation used. D) Scheme for Pharmacognostic studies of a Crude Drug. Advantage: Easy and hence many pharmaco-poeias, formulary, encyclopedias of various countries follow this classification. 6). Altitude, temperature and humidity 2. ADVERTISEMENTS: Tannins are naturally occurring complex organic compounds possessing nitrogen free polyphenols of high molecular weight. Although pharmacognosy mostly deals with medicinal herbs, some animal products and bacterial products are also discussed in it. Most plant resins are composed of terpenes.Specific components are alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, delta-3 carene, and sabinene, the monocyclic terpenes limonene and terpinolene, and smaller amounts of the tricyclic sesquiterpenes, longifolene, caryophyllene, and delta-cadinene.Some resins also contain a high proportion of resin acids. Pharmacognosy Quiz Question & Answers (Question Bank) Free Online Test For Medical Students like PG, PHD, Specialist exam entrance. Classification systems for natural substances, methodology of pharmacognosy. They are used as stabilizers, pigments and other components to form plastics. 100+ Important Pharmacognosy … Resins are a heterogeneous mixture of resin acids (C 20 H 30 O 2), fatty acids, esters of these acids, sterols, alcohols, waxes, and resenes (mixtures of neutral alkali-resistant compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen). They also precipitate proteins and alkaloids. Primary Metabolites 141 12.1 Carbohydrates 141 12.2 Proteins 166 12.3 Lipids 175 13. Indigenous System Of Medicines 107 10. Syllabus: 1. The Graduate Pharmacy Aptitude Test (GPAT), opens doors to infinite opportunities for students from pharmaceutical domain. Fertilizers 5. Saccharides, resins and gums – classification, occurence, biosynthesis, properties and use 4. Resins occur predominantly in woody seed plants. Alkaloids have diverse and important physiological effects on humans and other animals. Pharmacognosy: Fundamentals, Applications and Strategies explores a basic understanding of the anatomy and physiology of plants and animals, their constituents and metabolites. Resins (classification) 8). Introduction to parts of Medicinal Plant 3. 5.4.1.3. Various systems of classification of drugs and natural origin. Soil and soil fertility 4. Pharmacognosy is the branch of knowledge concerned with medicinal drugs obtained from plants or other natural sources. Define evolution of crude drug and discuss microscopic evolution of crude drug. Pharmacognosy is the branch of pharmacy deals with study of crude drugs derived from plants and natural resources. Resin, any natural or synthetic organic compound consisting of a noncrystalline or viscous liquid substance. The physical states of the stationary phase and mobile phases. Adulteration and drug evaluation; significance of pharmacopoeial standards. Introduction to Pharmacognosy: (a) Definition, history, scope and development of Pharmacognosy (b) Sources of Drugs – Plants, Animals, Marine & Tissue culture Organized drugs, unorganized drugs (dried latex, dried juices, dried extracts, gums and mucilages, oleoresins and oleo- gum -resins). Alkaloid, any of a class of naturally occurring organic nitrogen-containing bases. Pharmacognosy in various systems of medicine practiced in India viz: Ayurveda, Unani, Homeopathic and Siddha. 2. Volatile oils evaporate on exposure to air at ordinary’ temperature and are the odorous constituents. Role of Pharmacognosy in allopathy and traditional systems of medicine namely, Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha, Homeopathy and Chinese systems of medicine. Pharmaceutical Enzymes 136 12. 3. PHARMACOGNOSY. They are formed in plant secretions and are Scope The subject involves the fundamentals of Pharmacognosy like scope classification of crude drugs their identification and evaluation phytochemicals present in them and their medicinal properties Course Learning Outcomes Upon completion of the course the student shall be able 1 to understand the techniques in the … C) Classification of Crude Drugs. The astringent in nature of tannins is due to the fact that they can precipitate proteins and render them resistant to enzymatic attack. Plant Tissue Culture 130 11. They exert therapeutically significant effect on human and animals .Traditionally used in modern medicine because of their cardio tonic, purgative, analgesic, anti-arrhythmic, demulcent action. Disadvantage: This Classification of crude drugs Based on alphabetical, morphological, pharmacological, chemical, taxonomical and ... resins, lipids and volatile oils. Although each system of classification has its own merits and demerits, but for the purpose of study the drugs are classified in the following different ways: Alphabetical classification Morphological classification Taxonomical classification classification in a definite sequence is necessary to understand easily. Hrs. Definition, history and scope of Pharmacogonosy including indigenous system of medicine. Introduction to secondary metabolites: Definition, classification, properties and test for identification of Alkaloids, Glycosides, Flavonoids, Tannins, Volatile oil and Resins. Natural resins are typically fusible and flammable organic substances that are transparent or translucent and are yellowish to brown in colour. Historical Development and Scope of Pharmacognosy. Unit V (08 Hours) Define plant tissue culture and its application 5). Pharmacognosy Book PDF Download Free For B.Pharmacy and D.Pharmacy Students. Students of D.pharm can also use these questions for thier university or any competitive exams. Role of Pharmacognosy in allopathy and traditional systems of medicine namely, Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha, Homeopathy and Chinese systems of medicine. Chapter: Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry : Classification of Drugs of Natural Origin The most important natural sources of drugs are higher plant, microbes and animals and marine organisms. Well-known alkaloids include morphine, strychnine, quinine, ephedrine, and nicotine. Synthesis of Resins. Pests and pest control No. This book also provides an in-depth look at natural sources from which medicines are derived, their pharmacological and chemical properties, safety aspects, and how they interact with humans. Pharmacognosy. Rainfall and irrigation 3. 4). 4. 20 important question 1). Some basic terminologies use in Pharmacognosy Drug: This is anything that is used in modifying conditions of animals and human in disease conditions drugs can be from natural, semi synthetic and synthetic origin.In real sence drugs can be referred to as true drugs or crude drugs Crude Drugs: These are drugs that are derived from natural forms; from plants, animals and minerals. Resins are any of the chemically modified natural resins or synthetic polymers which are physically similar, including thermoplastic materials such as polyvinyl, polystyrene, and polyethylene, as well as thermosetting materials such as polyesters, epoxies, and silicones. Pharmacognosy: Course Outline (518-IIB) Pharmacognosy is a branch of pharmaceutical sciences which focuses on drugs of herbal and natural origin. Pharm-D First Professional . Sources of Drugs: Biological, marine, mineral and plant tissue cultures as sources of drugs; Classification of Drugs: Morphological, taxonomical, chemical and pharmacological classification of drugs; Study of medicinally important plants belonging to the families with special reference to: As the term indicates these are The chemical nature of the stationary phase and … RESINS FROM HERBAL ORIGIN AND A FOCUS ON THEIR APPLICATIONS HTML Full Text. Factor affecting cultivation of medicinal plant. 2. Introduction: No of medicinal plants containing organic constituents in conjugation with a sugar moiety .It can be 1or2 .such compounds are called as glycosides. 1. Resins. 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