Table 1. Marek’s Disease Vaccine. As reported in Supplementary Table 2, we found that the median value of R0 is around 2.9 (95% C.I. Table 3 reports some of the survey results that have been used to calibrate the model. Chronic infection can also occur since it is a herpes virus. The benefits evaluation involves two levels: the public and the private one. For SM and CSCE strategies implemented in months different from March, the benefits are comparable to the costs and steadily increase in the first 2 years. Available online at: http://www.oie.int/doc/ged/d3248.pdf. “We believe that the production of thermo-tolerant PPR vaccine by NVI will considerably contribute to the elimination of PPR from all corners of Ethiopia by 2027,” said Ms. Fatouma Seid, FAO Representative to Ethiopia. (2010) 33:1–25. Available online at: http://books.google.com/books?id=TRXrMWY_i2IC. The country is divided in 15 Wilayas (i.e., regions), subdivided in 44 Moughataas (departments). Global Aridity Index (Global-Aridity) and Global Potential Evapo-Transpiration (Global-PET) Geospatial Database. The disease is endemic in several parts of Asia and Africa and causes huge losses. (32), it looks safer to implement at least 2 mass vaccination campaigns, firstly because GSCE strategy provides highest reduction in deaths and cases; secondly a mass vaccination could overcome the reticence of some herders. However, in view of the distribution of these diseases, which overlap in many regions worldwide, acquired immunity against one of the two diseases could interfere with the vaccine's capacity to induce immunity against the other. A model including multiple patches of population, linked by animal movements, could better describe the spatio-temporal patterns of disease propagation and reproduce the Tabaski peaks of infections. In terms of economic benefits, a GSCE strategy, independently of the vaccination month, has a much higher economic return compared to other strategies, whilst the target ones (ST) had the lowest costs associated. Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a disease of small ruminants caused by peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV), and is endemic in Asia, the Middle East and Africa. This is the strategy planned for the next years in Mauritania. All scenarios start in 2018 with vaccination in October and 15.6% of animals vaccinated, according to information provided by Veterinary Service. doi: 10.1177/0272989X02239651, 38. All questions regarding the private sector prices should be directed to the manufacturers. PPR virus (PPRV) is transmitted through close contact between infected and susceptible animals. In Figure 7 we report the quantity of vaccine distributed (Q) each year according to the different strategy and vaccination month, and the corresponding effective doses (E). Tenzin, WK and Ward, MP (2012) Human and animal rabies prevention and control cost in Bhutan, 2001–2008: the cost–benefit of dog rabies elimination. Tago D, Sall B, Lancelot R, Pradel J. VacciCost – a tool to estimate the resource requirements for implementing livestock vaccination campaigns. Vaccination wastage impacts the vaccination costs for a percentage varying from 20% (ST March) to 66.6% (SR in July). doi: 10.3201/eid1912.130973, 7. 5. Available online at: http://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/Factsheets/pdfs/peste_des_petits_ruminants.pdf, 49. PPR abbreviation. A retrospective study in Mauritania. (2015) 13:3985. doi: 10.2903/j.efsa.2015.3985, 47. Data on herd demography, PPR seroprevalence and disease impact were collected by ONARDEL officers through ad-hoc national surveys to calibrate the epidemiological model. Reducing the vaccine wastage could increase the economic benefits of vaccination. (2002) 64:583–639. Preliminary analysis of serological data showed that the percentage of seropositive steadily increases for the age-groups (3–6; 6–12 months) and subsequently flattens for older groups. ... of PPR, 2008 A PPR vaccine has been developed in India which is effective and provides lifetime immunity to the target species. PPR is endemic in Mauritania, with outbreaks reported yearly during winter time (January-March) and during the Tabaski period2. GSCE-vaccination appears to be the most effective strategy in terms of deaths and case reduction. El Arbi AS, El Mamy AB, Salami H, Isselmou K, Kwiatek O, Libeau G, et al. 1/2005). We assumed that: with β1 ≪ β0. Figure 9. AA, RM, PH, and MC developed and implemented the dynamic model. However, outbreaks investigations in three Wilayas during 2012 epidemics suggest a case-fatality rate close to our estimation (range [39; 58]%) (40, 46). Impact Factor 2.245 | CiteScore 2.6More on impact ›, Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR): Generating Evidence to Support Eradication Efforts We sampled from the posterior distribution of the parameters (α, μ, μ5, incoming, outgoing) using Metropolis-Hastings algorithm, assuming uniform priors. Articles, Koret School of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden. Delivery of the vaccine to the animals would involve field veterinarians and other animal health personnel, transport, cold chain, field equipment, and vaccination equipment. The random (not targeted) strategies are the most expensive in terms of vaccine-administration costs and vaccine wastage: the more vaccine doses are distributed randomly, the more are wasted. Indeed, as for rinderpest, there are a very efficacious attenuated PPR vaccines that provides lifelong immunity and efficient PPR specific diagnostic tools for disease surveillance (12–15). Available online at: https://www.R-project.org/, 51. In the long term the abuse of antibiotics could lead to development of antimicrobial resistance with catastrophic consequences. Finally, in 2010 a national serosurvey campaign was conducted as part of the VACNADA project activities to estimate PPR prevalence in 10 Wilayas (circles in Figure 1). In our model we have considered that GSCE strategy is applied all along the period 2018–2030 a period longer than suggested by OIE. Line colors correspond to the evaluation for different sero-prevalence values. Brisson M, Edmunds WJ. Although the book discusses many aspects of the current situation, such as epidemiological distribution, progress in vaccine development, and advances in the diagnosis of PPR diagnostic procedures, information regarding the most recent developments is lacking; a few chapters were written in ≈2000 before the increase in PPR research. Find here Veterinary Vaccines, Animal Vaccine manufacturers, suppliers & exporters in India. FAO and OIE. Biokemistri. A low value of cs indicates that the implementation of the screening is not economically viable. This work was funded by the European Projects VMERGE: European Union Grant FP7-613996 and PALEBLU: E.C. The cumulative vaccination costs for GSCE strategy, over the period 2018–2030, are higher than other strategies, mainly because of the mass campaign implemented at the beginning. The model was calibrated on data collected through ad-hoc surveys about demographic dynamics, disease impact, and national seroprevalence using Monte Carlo Markov Chain procedure. Prev Vet Med. The vaccine’s formulation has remained mostly unchanged since its 2010 federal approval, but its price continues creeping up, increasing by about 5% or 6% most years. TB Vaccine (BCG) Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is a vaccine for tuberculosis (TB) disease. For each strategy we have considered three periods (2018–2020; 2020–2025; 2025–2030) to take account of possible variations in vaccine wastage. The numbers of deaths, births, entry and exits (nx) reported in demographic survey data, Table 1, followed a binomial distribution. For the first 2 years of implementation, the quantity of vaccine wasted for GSCE is higher than the other allocations and in 2020 the quantity of vaccine wasted by the GSCE strategy almost doubles. All authors listed have made a substantial, direct and intellectual contribution to the work, and approved it for publication. Saving Lives, Protecting People. We initially run the baseline scenario, where no vaccination is implemented. Lefèvre P-C, Blancou J, Chermette R. Principales Maladies Infectieuses et Parasitaires Du Bétail: Europe et Régions Chaudes. (2010) 138: 1211–4. Application to peste des petits ruminants (PPR) vaccination in senegal. The discrepancies between our estimates and Jones' ones could be imputed to the small ruminants' market values used in our model. (2018) 13:e0199547. Figure 1. Therefore, a readily available, rapid, and cost-effective test with high specificity and sensitivity for early detection of COVID 19 is required. Moreover, due to the permeability of the borders and the lack of an integrated control and surveillance system in the area, PPR cannot be fully eradicated from Mauritania. Dots represent the percentage of seropositive by age group, and shaded red area indicates 50 and 95% confidence interval of simulations. In this analysis, we focus on direct benefits coming from the avoided losses due to PPR related deaths (BS) and avoided treatment expenses (BM) to assess the economic impact of the vaccination. Rev Elev Méd Vit Pays Trop. A negative or null value of (cs) indicates that identification screening procedure is not economically viable and then not worthy implementing. per unit cost of vaccine and vaccination (` 6) was then. For all scenarios, the estimated revenue is around one order of magnitude higher than the cost for vaccination. Find here Veterinary Vaccines, Animal Vaccine manufacturers, suppliers & exporters in India. Common signs of the infection are high fever, ocular and nasal discharges, erosive lesions on different mucous membranes, particularly in the mouth, diarrhea and respiratory distress. The total administration costs, the economic impact of vaccine wastage and the costs for the effective vaccination at the end of the period 2018–2030, together with the cumulative benefits were summarized in Table 5. Disrupting the vaccination could cause the re-insurgence of PPR, due to the re-introduction of the virus by transboundary movements, with catastrophic effects on small ruminants' production, as it has occurred in Morocco during 2016. The market values of young and old animals are different, with young ones, the more susceptible, sold at lower price than older ones (ryoung < radult). Roger F, Yigezu LM, Hurard C, Libeau G, Mebratu GY, Diallo A, et al. The estimated cost of a dose of PPR vaccine in Somalia was USD 0.12 which compares favourably with the USD 0.10 reported by Jones et al. Even if some countries manage to immunise their populations against the virus, as long as the virus is not under control in all regions of the world, there will continue to be a global economic cost associated with COVID-19. Rationale 14 1.3. At one-year coarser temporal scale, the serological estimates are comparable to collected data. Dollars. According to the recent demographic survey done by ONARDEL3 and Mauritanian Veterinary Services, small ruminant herds are mixed (sheep and goats) with a higher proportion of sheep, reaching 70% of the herd. Vienna: R Foundation for Statistical Computing (2017). The construction of next-generation matrices for compartmental epidemic models. The avoided treatment expenses (BM) can be estimated from the number of cases prevented as. 36. PLoS ONE. According to its current cost, identification would be a viable investment that could reduce the number of vaccine doses to distribute by 20–60%. Economic evaluation of vaccination programs: the impact of herd-immunity. (16) (median 33.8 varying between 18.5 for low mortality area and 60.0 for high ones), with the benefit for treatment avoidance accounting for 10% of the total BCR. Depending on husbandry practices and agro-ecological systems, births are concentrated in 1 or 2 periods of the year. (2015) 181:90–106. Preprint This article is a preprint. Identification cost (cid) amounts to 0.10$ per animal, thus contributing to 20% of the cost for vaccinating and identify animals (cid+ cV) that is, in most of the cases (not for the target strategies), less than the fraction of wastage. We supposed that the mortality rate was the same for all age groups (μ) except the last one (μ5). Math Biosci Eng. The government of Bangladesh delivers the PPRV vaccine at a very low subsidized cost (0.60 USD (50 BDT) per vial for 100 doses) but the effectiveness of the vaccine had been in question from the very beginning of its introduction (Sarkar et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. The BCR estimated for GSCE strategies in our model varies between 19.4 and 24.9 depending on the month of implementation. State health authorities have called on Congress to provide $8.4 billion. (2010) 116:161–5. In Mauritania, births are concentrated in two specific moments of the year (August–September and December–January) and movements of small ruminants are concentrated in two periods: between April and June and around Tabaski (26) whose occurrence is anticipated every year of 11 days. This vaccine is not widely used in the United States, but it is often given to infants and small children in other countries where TB is common. Future studies should consider a detailed description of the logistic costs as part of costs benefits analysis of vaccination campaign as previously done for the Senegalese case (17). We sampled from the posterior distributions of the parameters to evaluate the basic reproductive ratio R0 using the Next Generation Approach as in Diekmann et al. Health Care Workers. The product consists of one ampule of vaccine and a container of diluent. Rhinotracheitis is a herpes virus and causes fever, sneezing, a runny nose and eyes. In West Africa, animals, mainly adult ones, are moved in search of better grazing areas (i.e., transhumance) (21–23), to be sold alive at markets (i.e., for commercial reasons and at religious festivities such as Tabaski) (24, 25), or to be exchanged among families and relatives (i.e., confiage) (25, 26). In our cases we found that for most of our scenario the identification screening is not a viable solution. Vaccination is being taken forward as the key strategy along with epidemiological surveillance to target vaccination efforts and eradicate the disease. Rationale for the eradication of PPR 13 1.1. A number of vaccines are used to prevent disease in goats. Despite the good agreement on the serological aspects, the model predicts a higher fatality rate relative to PPR (almost 10% above). Pictorial representation of the epidemiological model for the first and i-th age group. The vaccine is the only way to combat the disease by controlling and subsequently eradicating it. After this period, animals become fully susceptible to PPR (27, 28) thus ensuring the regular re-introduction in the population of fully susceptible animals that could feed the disease cycle (29). The model considered a population stratified in seven age-groups (0–3 months-old, 3–6 months-old, 6–12 months-old, 12–24 months-old, 24–36 months-old, 36–48 months-old, and 48 months and older), the age structure being fixed a priori to match the age stratification of the serological survey. Besides the cost of dispensing doses, this procedure should account for the costs of identifying animals and screening. Targeted strategies (ST) are the most convenient in terms of doses distributed, effectiveness of vaccination (higher ratio of effective vaccine doses), due to the targeting of young and probably non-immunized animals. The analysis of BCR shows that ST strategies are the most effective, whilst SR are the least ones. We also assumed that the vaccination is fully successful (all the animals vaccinated end up immunized) and confers a lifelong immunity. In Figure 9 each line corresponds to the maximal screening cost for a specific value of the prevalence, while the shaded areas correspond to the range of vaccination wastage in the period. This can be achieved through individual identification and screening of animals: identification will avoid vaccinating animals that have been vaccinated during previous campaigns; whilst screening will allow to identify animals that have already experienced the disease and are already immunized. Ly C, Kane I, Diop BA, Akakpo AJ. Main content area. Livestock mobility and population turnover are two of the main factors contributing to the propagation and persistence of the virus in the Sahelian region (20, 21). The committee, in its recommendations submitted to the government, mentioned that “NLEM is a dynamic document and there is scope to explore the possibility to include other veterinary vaccines like camel pox vaccine, sheep pox vaccine, PPR vaccine (given for the highly contagious Goat Plague), goat pox vaccine, Orf vaccine, buffalo pox vaccine, and poultry vaccines, etc., in the NLEM at … Due to this, the number of cases or the number of deaths related to PPR could have been easily miscalculated. 22. Colors correspond to the vaccination strategy, while line type to the month of vaccination. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0149982, 17. Findings: Overall, the cost per QALY gained for all vaccination strategies was $8,200 versus no vaccination. In the baseline scenario, where no vaccination is applied, the model predicts around 16 million deaths due to PPR before 2030. We calibrated the model to estimate natural mortality, fertility, entry, and exit rates due to commercial exchanges. However, its implementation in Mali has faced many challenges. Preliminary study, not reported in this article, has shown that vaccination coverage in neighboring countries could have a dramatic effect on Mauritania's national herd. We considered a disease-free population, where the population in each age class (Na) was susceptible (no infected animal) to study the demographic dynamics of the population. (2007) 25:5591–7. For each strategy we have considered three periods (2018–2020; 2020–2025; 2025–2030) to take account of possible variations in vaccine wastage. This indicates that the force of infection (λ), the rate at which the susceptible population is infected changes drastically for animals younger and older than 1 year of age: the bulk of infections occurs among the youngest groups whilst new infections among the oldest groups seldom occur. Vet. Results from the baseline case. 1. Abbreviation to define. In our model, for all strategies, the best months for vaccinating animals are December and March. 30. 11:30-13:00 • Current PPR Vaccines and needs for improvement Adama Diallo, IAEA • Thermostable PPR vaccine: application of rinderpest Jeff Mariner, Tuft experience t to PPR thermostable vaccine production • PPR thermostable vaccine research in IVRI Rabindra Singh, IVRI • Thermostable PPR Vaccine and optimization Ana Carina Silva, IBET PPR is a major constraint to small ruminant production in Mauritania with serious negative impacts to the livelihoods of small farmer households. A single, affordable multivalent vaccine that simultaneously protects against all 5 diseases would therefore be of significant benefit to the livestock sector in Africa. For all strategies, benefits from vaccination in March are immediately evident. We notice that the higher the prevalence the lower is the maximal screening costs. Rev D'élevage Méd Vét Pays Trop. Because of the high cost, many vaccine … doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2015.08.009, 48. We adapted the transmission model to account for these characteristics. 6:242. doi: 10.3389/fvets.2019.00242. Parida S, Muniraju M, Mahapatra M, Muthuchelvan D, Buczkowski H, Banyard AC. CDC is not responsible for Section 508 compliance (accessibility) on other federal or private website. Consequently, the total disease-related cost is estimated as follow: Two types of costs intervene in the cost of vaccination: the public and the private contribution. (2013) 19:2037–40. Vaccine 31 , 260 – 270 . In the late period for this strategy, the screening option is still viable till a cost of 1 USD. New search features Acronym Blog Free tools "AcronymFinder.com. Near-term strategic goals: To demonstrate favourable safety and proof of efficacy of a candidate vaccine against GAS pharyngitis and skin infections in children highly desired / Based on the number of sheep and goats targeted for vaccination against PPR which was 20,150,000, the unit cost of service delivery of the vaccine per animal was USD 0.14 per animal whereas the estimated cost of a dose of PPR vaccine was USD 0.12. As of 2020, Gardasil 9 is the only HPV vaccine available in the United States. The latter two could change along the years. 23. de Jode H. Modern and Mobile: The Future of Livestock Production in Africa's Drylands. The gap in cases and deaths averted between the SR and the GSCE strategy is that of a few million at the end (around 10 for the infections, and 3 for deaths). Gilks WR, Richardson S, Spiegelhalter D. Markov Chain Monte Carlo in Practice. « Back to Immunization Managers Home page, Prices last reviewed/updated: September 1, 2020. When the vaccine is furnished in the hospital outpatient department, payment for the vaccine is based on reasonable cost. For each strategy, the vaccination was implemented once a year but simulated on four different months of the year (March, July, October, and December), corresponding to specific demographic events (before transhumance, before the first peak of births, current period of vaccination, period around second peak of births) and periods of population renewal. On the other hand, other works (17–19) showed that other costs, like the logistic (fuel for vehicles, maintenance of the cold chain etc.) A total of 2,892 small ruminant herds were surveyed among 12 Wilayas in the pastoral area. View all Vaccine wastage can be further reduced by identifying and vaccinating only the susceptible animals among un-identified animals via an “identification and screening” procedure. Spiegelhalter DJ, Best NG, Carlin BP, van der Linde A. Bayesian measures of model complexity and fit. Symptomatic animals are treated with antibiotics for a week (30) and vitamins. Depending on age and species (sheep are clinically more resistant than goats) the disease may be hyper-acute (mortality at 98% among 4–7 months old animals), acute (mortality at 60% among all population), mild (no mortality), or sub-clinical (8, 9). Available online at: http://www.oie.int/fileadmin/Home/eng/Animal_Health_in_the_World/docs/pdf/Disease_cards/PESTE_DES_PETITS_RUMINANTS.pdf (accessed December 3, 2018). In terms of BCR vaccinating in March is the most cost-effective period, except for ST, for whom December is the best period. Finally, Figure 5D shows the year-cumulative number of PPR-related deaths. There are three cell culture-based live attenuated PPR vaccines available (one from an African isolate and two from Indian isolates). Note: The table below reflects contracts for the 2020-2021 Adult Flu. doi: 10.4236/jbm.2014.26005, 15. For patients with private sector plans, offices must purchase vaccine product and bill for it. 2003). A 2018 study published in The Lancet found that it can cost $1 billion to fund the research and development of a new vaccine. Tools 25 4.1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Private benefits could be both direct and indirect. Targeted interventions, on the other hand, have the lowest administration costs and wastage, and, at the same time, the highest fraction of effective vaccination and economics benefit. Moreover, we notice that the quantity of vaccine wasted (W) is much smaller for targeted (ST) vaccination than any other vaccination strategy: less vaccine is wasted. We assessed the effectiveness of vaccination strategies by assuming that the higher the cumulative number of cases/deaths averted, the “better” the vaccination strategy. colors correspond to young (<1 year old) and adults (>1 year old), solid line corresponding of the median and shaded area the 95% confidence interval of the simulations over a sample of 250 parameter values. Median cumulative number of cases (A) and deaths (B) averted by vaccination. The calibration provided estimations for the demographic and epidemiological parameters. PLoS ONE. Del Valle SY, Hyman JM, Chitnis N. Mathematical models of contact patterns between age groups for predicting the spread of infectious diseases. These bacteria are a major cause of ear infections, Strep throat infections, and serious pneumonia, meningitis, or blood infections worldwide.These vaccines help the body to produce antibodies that help your body defend against these bacteria. Reaching this level of vaccination coverage would be possible vaccinating animal at the border. Soetaert K, Petzoldt T, Woodrow Setzer R. Solving differential equations in R: package desolve. 24Reasons why there are three well-integrated components 4. Rome: FAO (2013). Control of peste des petits ruminants and poverty alleviation? Camacho A, Funk S. FitR: Tool Box for Fitting Dynamic Infectious Disease Models to Time Series. Figure 2. As long as the cost of vaccinating all animals is higher than the one of identifying and vaccinated only un-identified animals, the identification is a viable cost: Where the left side of Equation (7) corresponds to the cost of vaccinating all the animals (identified and not) while the right side corresponds to the cost of vaccinating (and identifying) only the un-identified animals (Q-W). (2017). The cost per vaccine dose (one dose is required per animal) is assumed to be US$0.10 based on current commercial prices in Africa, giving a total vaccine cost of US$246.8 million. Hammami P, Lancelot R, Lesnoff M. Modelling the dynamics of post-vaccination immunity rate in a population of sahelian sheep after a vaccination campaign against peste des petits ruminants virus. Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is one of the most important viral diseases of goats and sheep. (2008) 161:273. doi: 10.4267/2042/47951. Virus Dis. The targeted strategies and the GSCE ones rely on the targeted vaccination of young animals, thus reducing the number of doses to distribute. 37–41%) (40). For SR strategies, the percentage of vaccines wasted is between 62 and 66 % depending on the month of vaccination, whilst for targeted strategies the figure lies between 20 and 35%, Reducing the wastage, through animal identification, could further increase the benefits. Our model considers that vaccination is implemented in 1 month only, whilst Veterinary Service takes around 6 months to cover all the national territory (between October and April). Results are shown in Supplementary Table 2. The spread of pathogens through trade in small ruminants and their products. For targeted strategies (ST) the fraction of wasted vaccine is comparable to the contribution of identification to the total costs. On the day of vaccination animals were found to be negative for PPR specific antibodies whilst high titre virus neutralising antibodies were detected by second week of vaccination and reached at peak (log 4.76–5.31) on day 28 post vaccination, the day the animals were challenged, in both groups of vaccinated animals (Fig. Small ruminant production plays a major role in Mauritania economy. For the tiers at highest risk of complications from COVID-19, vaccination was cost-saving compared to no vaccination. We notice that for each vaccination strategy there is a strong dependency on the month of vaccination, with vaccination done in March and December being the most effective ones. What does PPR stand for?

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