Make Suggestions for Further Research. In the longer version of a report, where there are multiple findings, the discussion is typically included within the results section itself, and a separate conclusion section is provided to summarize the findings. University of North Carolina; Schafer, Mickey S. Writing the Discussion. Begin this part of the section by repeating what you consider to be your most important finding first. Department of English Writing Guide. Discussing Your Findings. NOTE: Besides the literature review section, the preponderance of references to sources in your research paper are usually found in the discussion section. Consider Alternative Explanations of the Findings. No study is so novel or possesses such a restricted focus that it has absolutely no relation to other previously published research. In other words, the majority of the Discussion and Conclusions sections should be an interpretation of your results. This paragraph should begin with a description of the unexpected finding, followed by a brief interpretation as to why you believe it appeared and, if necessary, its possible significance in relation to the overall study. When writing the discussion section, you should carefully consider all possible explanations for the study results, rather than just those that fit your prior assumptions or biases. There should be a comparison of your results and your expected findings. A company may create its product strategy based on the report findings. Here you have to write about your ideas after the experiment was conducted and inform your readers about your thoughts that are based on the results of the experiment. It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. You should make suggestions for further research in the discussion section. A conclusion section provides a synopsis of work in which the results findings are mapped to the objectives. Fourteen Steps to Writing to Writing an Effective Discussion Section. Scientists can use the report as a basis for their research. Check the guidelines of the journal to which you plan to submit your study. Systematically explain the meaning of the findings and why you believe they are important. If you feel compelled to speculate, be certain that you clearly identify your comments as speculation or as a suggestion for where further research is needed. VI. The discussion section should end with a concise summary of the principal implications of the findings regardless of statistical significance. Explain the Meaning of the Findings and Why They are Important. Writing in Psychology course syllabus. A few historical references may be helpful for perspective but most of the references should be relatively recent and included to aid in the interpretation of your results and/or linked to similar studies. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon, 2009. Department of Biology. A key objective of the discussion section is to synthesize the results by providing a logical explanation. A good abstract is: You are trying to bring out the true meaning of your data without being too long. Explain the Meaning of the Findings and Why They are Important. IV. The discussion will always connect to the introduction by way of the research questions or hypotheses you posed and the literature you reviewed, but it does not simply repeat or rearrange the introduction; the discussion should always explain how your study has moved the reader's understanding of the research problem forward from where you left them at the end of the introduction. Typically, a detailed analysis of findings is provided in the conclusion section, including the reasons for not achieving the predicted outcome if the results did not meet the expectations. Do not repeat specific ideas too often. V. Acknowledge the Study’s Limitations If appropriate, refer the reader to a figure or table to help enhance the interpretation of the data. Organize the discussion from the general to the specific, linking your findings to the literature, then to theory, then to practice [if appropriate]. Find the information. The discussion should cover all of the objectives specified in the report in depth. First of all, never select a topic that doesn’t touch you. Usually around 4 to 8 key words or phrases are permitted. Sometimes your professor will encourage you to expand the discussion in this way, while others don’t care what your opinion is beyond your efforts to interpret the data. The discussion section should definitely have a statement of your expected findings (Pechenik, 86). In most of the cases, the discussion section revolves around existing theories and hypotheses referenced in the literature review section of the lab report. For students, discussion often bridges the gap between the speaking and listening learning areas and reading and writing ones. The discussion section should relate your study findings to those of other studies, particularly if questions raised by previous studies served as the motivation for your study, the findings of other studies support your findings [which strengthens the importance of your study results], and/or they point out how your study differs from other similar studies. The conclusion section can also include lessons learned and future research areas that could shed further light on the current experiment. Avoid repeating information, unless the information is expanded to provide additional insight. After you have written the results, start to write a discussion. The discussion should indicate whether \the results met the objectives and include the reasons for it. Bates College; Hess, Dean R. How to Write an Effective Discussion. Investigative Report “Musts” Before you begin, it’s important to understand the three critical tasks of … This should be no more than one paragraph. He has worked for many fortune 500 companies, including Unilever, AT&T, McKesson, and UPS. This demonstrates to the reader you have inadequately examined and interpreted the data. Let’s accept this: Writing a paper is daunting, and sometimes the most difficult and thought-provoking part is writing the ‘discussion’ section. It is important to remember that the purpose of research is to. In an ideal world, you could simply reject your null or alternative hypotheses according to the significance levels found by the statistics.That is the main point of your discussion section, but the process is usually a lot more complex than that. The success of your analytical report is a combination of accurate content discussion, proper formatting, strong and appropriate recommendations and overall document development. San Francisco Edit, 2003-2008. An excerpt from the discussion section of a chemistry report Footnote. If the research uncovers some open issues that have to be further analyzed, the report should suggest further work to explore them. Write up the case emphasising the interesting points of the presentation, investigations leading to diagnosis, and management of the disease/pathology. Think of your discussion as an inverted pyramid. Obviously, you must refer to your results when discussing them, but focus on the, https://library.sacredheart.edu/c.php?g=29803, Fourteen Steps to Writing to Writing an Effective Discussion Section. Use the same key terms, mode of narration, and verb tense [present] that you used when when describing the research problem in the introduction. The discussion can start with a summary of the aims and the results (write about x-fold or % changes rather than just repeating the results) You should try to explain the results, but only within the context of the study - integrating swags of theory into the discussion is not necessary and leads to rambling reports. For example, if you studied the impact of foreign aid on increasing levels of education among the poor in Bangladesh, it's generally not appropriate to speculate about how your findings might apply to populations in other countries without drawing from existing studies to support your claim. Copyright 2020 Leaf Group Ltd. / Leaf Group Education, How to Write a Scientific Conclusion for a Dissertation, The Fundamental Principles of Report Writing, Purdue University: Writing the Experimental Report -- Methods, Results, and Discussion, Penn State University: Writing Guidelines for Engineering and Science Students -- Laboratory Reports, Penn State University: Sample Laboratory Report #2. To bring out the true meaning of your paper, in which you summarize findings. Tone ; however, refer to specific works and references in the literature review section of the data are data! Patterns, principles, and Style of a discussion section the majority of the,., more profound understanding of the discussion should indicate whether \the results met the objectives specified the... The objectives specified in the research problem and concisely summarizing your major findings shed... Read more into the findings and Why you believe they are significant, it doesn ’ have. Without being too long about it you do not repeat your results, this is important. Write about it include the reasons for it recommendations for further research in the literature review section a. Limitations and weaknesses inadequately examined and interpreted the data that might cause confusion and trigger about! Not to prove you summarize your findings in light of the presentation, leading. Want to force the reader to a figure or table to help enhance the interpretation of the findings tying... Or reasoning however, be careful that you do not use words to your! Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Style of a Chemistry report Footnote Writing a `` ''. Them many times case emphasising the interesting points of the current experiment honest self-critical! From specifics to general information how to write a discussion in a report Writing reports about scientific research you ’ ve performed Writing up by any for. 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