To explain loss aversion, behavioral economists rely on a model, developed in 1979, called prospect theory. Specifically, the value of a certain consequence is not seen in terms of its absolute magnitude but in terms of changes compared with a reference point. Kahneman & Tversky's (1979) prospect theory identified loss aversion as way to explain how people assess decisions under uncertainty. It plays a crucial role in Prospect Theory (Tversky and Kahneman, 1974)53, and (Tversky and Kahneman, 1992). This reference point is variable and can be, for example, the status quo. This phenomenon of escaping a losing position is known as loss aversion. The desire to avoid a loss IMPROVES even a professional’s performance. Theoretical Explanation of Loss Aversion. Most people will behave so that they minimize losses because losses loom larger than gains, even though the probability of those losses is tiny. Investors become irrationally risk averse and overly fearful. For example, in his recent address at the 71st CFA Institute Annual Conference, Kahneman stated that loss aversion causes investors to overweight losses relative to gains and therefore leads to flawed investment decision making. Fear of loss has a way of immobilizing people. Loss Aversion is a pervasive phenomenon in human decision making under risk and uncertainty, according to which people are more sensitive to losses than gains. A typical financial example is in investor’s difficulty to realize losses. Decision-making is hard business. Buying a car or committing to a mortgage stand out as major, energy-draining decisions. But for years now, marketers have been using these words to trigger responses from buyers. Loss aversion can be explained by the way people view the value of consequences. Loss Aversion. Judith Rawnsley, who worked for Barings Bank and later wrote a book about the Leeson case, proffered three explanations for Leeson’s behavior once the losses had started to pile up: 1) Leeson’s loss aversion stemmed from his fear of failure and humiliation; 2) his ego and greed were exacerbated by the macho trading environment in which he operated; 3) he suffered from common distortions in thinking patterns … Even if we aren’t professional golfers, or astute physicians, the majority of us are affected by loss aversion. The classic example of loss aversion comes from a casino. You Throw Good Money After Bad. Loss aversion bias expresses the one-liner – “the pain of losses is twice as much as the pleasure of gains.” As an example, we can talk about a phenomenon we see among investors. Rather than say ‘save £300’ a year by changing your windows. Loss aversion is the reason we see phrases like “last chance” or “hurry” in marketing campaigns so often. Defining ‘Loss Aversion’ People are reluctant to lose or give up something, even if it means gaining something better. Some play safe and avoid changes to protect their business from market loss or any disaster. People who lose money on a bet are unlikely to give up, collect their things and head home. The pain of losing also explains why, when gambling, winning $100 and then losing $80 feels like a … It’s no surprise that consumers are beginning to look at these trigger words as noise. Peoples loss aversion is stronger when they are losing something than gaining. Instead, the pain and regret of the lost money will cause them to bet more in hopes of coming out on top. As one of our automated responses in behavioral economics, loss aversion facilitates decision-making, by leading us to avoid losses at all costs. Instead say: … Framing the windows in terms of loss aversion is a powerful way to change people’s behaviour. Not to mention choosing a career. Loss aversion can also help your business keep existing customers. As the old saying goes, “A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush.” If you ask new investors to invest in the equity market , the first response they will give is this – “No, I don’t want to fall prey to the losses of the equity market.” Some common examples include: Holding onto a losing stock investment; Refusing to sell a home with a mortgage substantially above its market value

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