in 20 years). Liogier HA, Martorell LF, 2000. Roadsides, waste areas. 1192 pp. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/CV, Vascular Plants of Ecuador, 2015. Plant Resources of South-East Asia (PROSEA) No. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, USA. the leaves are compound (made up of two or more discrete leaflets; the leaves are simple (i.e., … http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm, Ambrose, D. C. P., Manickavasagan, A., Naik, R., 2016. Coriander with small, globose fruits (Microcarpum group or subsp. 319 pp. Peru Checklist, Tropicos website. Take a photo and A monograph on the physiological properties of coriander fruit oil has been published by the Research Institute for Fragrance Materials (RIFM). This process continues after harvest of the fruits and is accelerated by high temperatures combined with dry weather. India. Non-native: introduced Leafy medicinal herbs: botany, chemistry, postharvest technology and uses., CABI. is shown on the map. http://www.europe-aliens.org/. Chemotaxonomical investigations support such infraspecific classification. Risk of introduction for this species is low to moderate and warrants further research. The species was not included in Macfadyen’s 1837 work on Jamaica, though he mentions the species’ seed as a means of comparative measure in other plant descriptions. Discover thousands of New England plants. The content and composition of fatty oils in the endosperm of ripe fruits varies between 12 and 25% and is much more dependent on environmental conditions. The studies done on volunteers and animals have proved that coriander seeds can lower the blood sugar level and decreased the risk of type-2 diabetes. It is a soft, hairless plant. This is another fairly common Indian spice that was first … Ground coriander fruits are also an ingredient of spice mixtures like curry powder (containing up to 40% coriander). The species reproduces by seeds, which are themselves a global food and medicinal commodity, and the leaves of the species are also commonly used in cookery; the species has thus been intentionally dispersed by man as a crop plant for centuries. Coriander seed oil has the type of fresh, slightly spicy aroma that you would expect from an oil derived from the herb. Other names for coriander, which you may recognise, are cilantro and Chinese parsley. Rich in immune-boosting antioxidants. It is now naturalized in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Diederichsen A, Rugayah, 1999. Randall R P, 2012. DAISIE (online). Thus, maturation of the umbels of different orders is a successive process, and ripe fruits of the primary umbel may shatter before those of umbels of a higher degree have reached full maturity. Long days accelerate the generative development of coriander, but the effect is only minor. More information about modern web browsers can be found at http://browsehappy.com/. This species has been reported to escape from cultivation and is known to be naturalized and weedy in some parts of the world (Randall, 2012), but there has been no research on the potential environmental or economic impacts of this species’ invasiveness to non-native habitats and no PIER risk assessment for this species has yet been conducted. CABI is a registered EU trademark. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press, 1192 pp. Coriandrum sativum (coriander); leaves, on small potted plants. evidence (herbarium specimen, photograph). to exist in the county by The extraction residues are used as feed for ruminants. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador., St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. Compendium record. 98. Alam Zeb, in Essential Oils in Food Preservation, Flavor and Safety, 2016. vii-xi + 516 pp.. FAO, 2017. Coriander is the name for the leaves and stalks of the plant, while the dried seeds are called coriander seeds. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press, 590 pp. Erect, annual, glabrous, usually profusely branching herb, up to 1.3 m tall with a well-developed taproot. Show Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2012. It has been well known since antiquity. The aldehydes make up more than 80% of these volatile compounds. 6 (Special Issue No. In the past the species was also sometimes called ‘dizzycorn’ referring to its use in reducing dizziness by inhaling the aroma of crushed corriander seed (Loewenfeld and Back, 1978). Flora Mesoamericana, 2015. image, please click it to see who you will need to contact. For details, please check with your state. the state. The soil should preferably be at least a sandy loam, but the crop will also grow well on loam and clay soils with good drainage. post Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Coriander offers several antioxidants, which prevent cellular … All Characteristics, the leaves are compound (made up of two or more discrete leaflets, the leaves are simple (i.e., lobed or unlobed but not separated into leaflets), the edge of the leaf blade has lobes, or it has both teeth and lobes, the edge of the leaf blade is entire (has no teeth or lobes), there are two or more ways to evenly divide the flower (the flower is radially symmetrical), there is only one way to evenly divide the flower (the flower is bilaterally symmetrical), there are two or more ways to evenly divide the calyx (the calyx is radially symmetrical), there is only one way to evenly divide the calyx (the calyx is bilaterally symmetrical), the leaf blade is linear (very narrow with more or less parallel sides), the leaf blade is orbicular (roughly circular, as wide as long), the leaf blade is ovate (widest below the middle and broadly tapering at both ends), the leaf blade is rhombic (roughly diamond-shaped), the leaf has a row of two or more lobes on each side of the central axis, the leaf has a row of two or more lobes on each side of the central axis, and each lobe itself has rows of lobes on each side of the lobe's central axis, the leaf has lobes that themselves have lobes, and these secondary lobes also have lobes; there may be more than three levels of lobes. The fresh leaves of the plant are commonly called cilantro or Chinese parsley, and have a strong citrus flavor. Coriander is a very variable species, and the botanical literature contains several subclassifications into subspecies, varieties and forms. Food plants of the world: An illustrated guide. The Romans reportedly introduced the species into Britain, where it came to be used for a wide range of culinary as well as medicinal and magical purposes; for example, in the Middle Ages, it was used to make love potions and to treat facial skin ailments (Phillips, 1822), and in British Victorian society its meaning in the language of flowers was ‘hidden merit’ (Lawton, 2007). Leaf type. A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs, and Climbers of Myanmar. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. In India, fruit damage is reported to be caused by the chalcid fly Systolealbipennis. Loewenfeld C, Back P, 1978. Both the leaves and fruit (seeds) of coriander are used as food and medicine. Serve over rice or shredded Chinese cabbage and red pepper slices. July 2008. St. Louis, MO: Missouri Botanical Garden. Neither was the species included in Bello Espinosa’s work on Puerto Rico in the 1880’s, but it was listed by Britton (1918) in his flora of Bermuda, in which Britton writes that the species had been reportedly naturalised there by 1877, despite his failure to observe it growing there in 1918. Coriander reached South-East Asia from two directions: forms with ovoid fruits were introduced from India, while forms with small, globular fruits arrived later (after 400 AD) from China. Fungal diseases (Fusarium sp., Ramularia sp.) The coriander plant is a member of the carrot family. Coriander fruits are commonly used as a spice, being part of a large number of dishes. The plant contains powerful antioxidants … St. Louis, MO: Missouri Botanical Garden. Fruit an ovoid to globose schizocarp, up to 5 mm in diameter, yellow-brown with 10 straight longitudinal ribs alternating with 10 wavy longitudinal ridges, often crowned by the dry persistent calyx lobes and the stylopodium with styles; fruit does usually not split at maturity; it contains 2 mericarps which each bear on their concave side 2 longitudinal, rather wide lines (vittae), containing essential oil. Coriander is cross-fertilized by insects; the stigma remains receptive for 5 days, pollen is fertile for 24 hours only; stamens emerge one by one. Ravindran, P. N., 2017. Coriander is the dried seed or fruit of the Coriandrum sativum plant, which belongs to the parsley family. The major fatty acid (more than 60%) is petroselinic acid (C18:1(6C)), which is an isomer of oleic acid (C18:1(9C)) that is also present. The species grows quickly and can produce market-ready leaves (sold as cilantro) within a month and market-ready seeds (sold as coriander) after about a month and a half. Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantad del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue 1):24-96, Paraguay Checklist, 2015. In the USA the regulatory status 'generally recognized as safe' has been accorded to coriander fruits (GRAS 2333) and coriander fruit oil (GRAS 2334). Editorial de la Universidad de Puerto Rico. This marinade can be used well with other meats as well. Its nutritional as well as medicinal properties have been widely revised by Laribi et al. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium no. Clove. We depend on Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba. Coriander is an aromatic plant (Coriandrum sativum) in the parsley family. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. Green plants are dried for preservation and are traded on the world market as well as the fruits. History of cultivated vegetables: Comprising their botanical, medicinal, edible, and chemical qualities, natural history, and relation to art, science, and commerce, Volume I. London, UK: H. Colburn and Co. 383 pp. Pests like the biscuit beetle (Stegobiumpaniceum) may damage stored fruits. Today it is widely spread across Europe, and a common feature in various European culinary traditions. ©Dinesh Valke-2011/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 2.0. Considering that the seeds of C. sativum are a global commodity and because it will continue to be cultivated around the world, areas for recommended research in the future include risk assessment and impacts of the species in places where it is known to be weedy, as well as methods of prevention and control. Phillips H, 1822. Cilantro resembles parsley with its flat, delicately toothed leaves. The species was apparently introduced to Austria for ‘fauna improvement’ and to Spain through horticulture (DAISIE, 2015). © Copyright 2020 CAB International. Lista de espécies Flora do Brasil website. Coriandrum sativum (coriander); flowers. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report. Cilantro an annual herb and does not easily root from cuttings, but it readily produces seeds and self-seeds. Recent investigations showed that the shape of the fruit is also important, and a third group (Indicum) with ovate fruits has been described. Coriander, Coriandrum sativum, is an erect annual herb in the family Apiaceae. In Cuba the species is listed as naturalized and is potentially invasive with a tendency to proliferate in any locality (, This species has been reported to escape from cultivation and is known to be naturalized and weedy in some parts of the world (, Flora of China Editorial Committee (2015), http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm, http://tropicos.org/Name/34500581?projectid=13, http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2, http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=11, http://www.floridata.com/ref/c/cori_sat.cfm, http://botany.si.edu/myanmar/checklistNames.cfm, http://tropicos.org/Name/34500581?projectid=5, http://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/hawaiianflora/index.htm, http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/jabot/PrincipalUC/PrincipalUC.do, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. The species was included in the Britton and Wilson (1923-1926) flora of Puerto Rico, in which the species was reportedly grown in gardens for culinary uses. The term "coriander" is often used to refer a spice made from the dry fruit of the Coriandrum sativum plant. Considering that the species readily naturalises in introduced habitats (Forzza et al., 2010; Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012) as well as its long history of repeated introductions and known weediness, it can be regarded as potentially invasive, but is not currently recorded as an invasive species. Go Botany: Native Plant Trust All rights reserved. The leaves of the plant are variable in shape, broadly lobed at the base of the plant, and slender and feathery higher on the flowering stems. Coriander originating from the Indian subcontinent (Indicum group or subsp. In all South-East Asian countries coriander is grown as a culinary herb and vegetable. Anthropogenic (man-made or disturbed habitats), meadows and fields. The Go Botany project is supported Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff MG, et al., 2012. Coriandrum sativum is a culinary and medicinal herb which can become weedy outside cultivation. To enhance the flavor of whole Coriander Seed, toast it in a dry pan to wake up the volatile oil compounds that give coriander its enigmatic flavor profile. [ed. Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide. > 0°C, dry summers, Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter, Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. A delicious marinade for flank steak blending the flavors of crushed coriander seed, lime juice, and soy sauce. (Coriandrum sativum L). Coriander seeds reach physiological maturity 6-7 weeks after anthesis. Coriander (also called cilantro) is native to the Mediterranean but cultivated worldwide as a culinary herb. CT, MA, ME, vulgare (large fruits) and var. Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Diederichsen and Hammer (2003) proposed three subspecies covering ten botanical varieties of coriander, with characteristics of the volatile oil in the fruits being used together with morphological characteristics to describe the different groups. Online Database. ©Thamizhpparithi Maari/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0, Cultivated and sometimes naturalised. Coriandrum sativum (coriander); close-up of seeds. Liogier HA, Martorell LF, 2000. Leiden, The Netherlands: Backhuys Publisher. Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases online resource. Andes, Angelópolis, Bello, Guarne, Medellín, Rionegro, San Jerónimo, Valparaiso, Azuay, Cañar, Chimborazo, Galapagos, Imbabura, Loja, Los Ríos, Pichincha, Tungurahua, Cordillera, Paraguarí; Original citation: Paraguay Checklist (2015), Cajamarca, Ica, Junín, La Libertad, Lima, Loreto, San Martín; Original citation: Peru Checklist (2015), As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer, < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25]), Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer, Warm average temp. Coriander (Coriandrum sativum) is a typical species … The time from sowing to harvesting depends very much on the genotype, and is usually between 90 and 140 days. To reuse an Abstract. Coriandrum sativum is a culinary and medicinal herb which can become weedy outside cultivation. Coriander is a fragrant spice, coriander in present times is valued as much for its medicinal properties as for its use as an agent of flavouring and seasoning.The aroma of this herb is warm, nutty and spicy. Wyk BE van, 2005. Therefore, it's best to grow cilantro from seeds rather than transplanting it. Tropicos website St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. Coriander has its origin in the Near East. Coriander is a spice produced from the round, tan-colored seeds of the coriander plant (Coriandrum sativum), which is a member of the parsley family. Basil belongs to the mint family, it’s known as “royal herb” or “the king of herb”. Plant breeders and the seed trade often refer to two main groups of coriander based on fruit size: var. xiii + 282 pp.. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20163250834, Bolivia Checklist, 2015. Flora of Bermuda., C. Scribner's Sons. Latin name: Syzgium aromaticum. Coriandrum sativum L. In: Guzman CC de, Siemonsma JS, Eds. Quattrocchi U, 2012. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=11, Flora of Pakistan, 2015. While there may be some subtle textural and flavor differences between specific cultivars, most of the… However, since young coriander of some genotypes is frost resistant it can be cultivated as a cold-season crop over a much longer period. The height of the herb is usually about 100 cm, and contains tiny, sensitive flowers which vary from white to pink in colour and intense green parsley like leaves. Tallahassee, Florida: Floridata.com. World economic plants: A standard reference. A global compendium of weeds. September 2007. Details. The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. http://faostat3.fao.org/, Flora Mesoamericana, 2015. In spite of the relatively low content of essential oil, this coriander is sometimes preferred because of its specific flavouring quality. Food and agriculture data. In fact, the oil smells exactly like a freshly crushed coriander seed. The species has a long history of cultivation dating back to ancient Egyptian times, but it has been known to escape from cultivation and to naturalize beyond its native range, often becoming weedy (Liogier and Martorell, 2000; Randall, 2012). The oil consists of several monoterpenoids. Date of the species’ introduction to the West Indies is unknown, but it may have occurred during the early 19th century. state. Leaf Cilantro. These groups also differ by other characters such as length of vegetation period, plant height, branching, vegetative productivity and leaf characters. The vernacular name 'cilantro', often used in the United States for coriander leaves, is also used for another species, Eryngiumfoetidum L., ‘sawtooth coriander’ (Diederichsen and Rugayah, 1999). donations to help keep this site free and up to date for The crop has since spread throughout the world, and different morphotypes have developed. It’s Great for Digestion. Tamil Nadu, India. The peripheral florets of the umbellets are the first to flower. Also covers those considered historical (not seen During ripening the aldehyde components of the essential oil disappear, and the odour of the fruits changes notably. (2015). National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. The dried seeds are used whole or ground as a spice in European, Asian, Latin, and Indian dishes. January 2012. Second Edition. As well as the many benefits of the oil, coriander leaves themselves offer a range of amazing health benefits. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of the Department of Antioquia (Colombia), Tropicos website. http://www.europe-aliens.org/. Coriander Seed. If you allow your plant to mature, you can harvest the seeds for next season. Flora of the Hawaiian Islands website., Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. The family includes many common vegetables and kitchen herbs such as celery, carrot, fennel, dill, coriander, and parsnip.C. Coriandrum sativum. by Guzman CC de, Siemonsma JS]. 480 pp. CRC world dictionary of medicinal and poisonous plants: Common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms, and etymology. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). It is a common garden plant in Puerto Rico (Liogier and Martorell, 2000). These three main groups also differ in content and composition of the essential oil of the fruit. Phillips H, 1822. L. E. coriander. Large-scale production exists in southern Russia, the Ukraine and other East European countries. 2n = 22-26, 28, 30 (Wagner et al., 2015). Coriander is used in folk medicine. Often called the ‘carrot’ or ‘parsley’ family, the Apiaceae family consists of anise-scented, caulescent annual herbs from taproots characterized by flowers borne in rounded, compound umbels, from which the family’s earlier name of Umbelliferae is derived. A geographical atlas of world weeds. Buy On Amazon. In Cuba the species is listed as naturalized and is potentially invasive with a tendency to proliferate in any locality (Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012). indicum) has ovoid fruits, with a low content of essential oil containing little or no camphor, myrcene and limonene, but much linalool. The fruits are reported to have carminative, diuretic, tonic, stomachic, antibilious, refrigerant, anticatarrhal, antispasmodic, galactagogue, emmenagogue and aphrodisiac effects. Makawao, Maui, Hawaii, USA. Seedling with epigeal germination; taproot thin with many lateral roots; hypocotyl up to 2.5 cm long; cotyledons opposite, oblanceolate, up to 3 cm x 4 mm, pale green. (Lista de espécies Flora do Brasil website)., http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/jabot/PrincipalUC/PrincipalUC.do. Per 1 g fresh leaves about 4 mg of essential oil is present. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y pontencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011.) It was present in France by the 17th century, as the species was used as an ingredient in the famous Parisian liqueur of this time, eau-de-Carnes (Loewenfeld and Back, 1978). Considering its centuries-long history of cultivation around the world and no current reports of its invasiveness, this species is not likely to become a high-threat species in the near future. Coriander, ( Coriandrum sativum ), also called cilantro or Chinese parsley, feathery annual plant of the parsley family ( Apiaceae ), parts of which are used as both an herb and a spice. Some genotypes of coriander form several basal leaves, others start stem elongation immediately or after the second leaf. Scientific Survey of Porto Rico and Virgin Islands. Coriandrum sativum Flora of Pakistan/Pakistan Plant Database (PPD). Cilantro, Coriandrum sativum, usually refers to the leaves of the plant, which are used as an herb. Wiersema JH, Leo´n B, 2013. Coriander can be found wild today in Armenia and Israel, but also in some parts of Thuringia, where it even has formed its own subspecies. Flora of China., St. Louis, Missouri; Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. vulgare (large fruits) and var. The seeds have been found in Neolithic excavations. coriandricola. Other herbs are used where they grow in much the same way as coriander leaves. 104-108. Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is a medicinal and aromatic plant belonging to the Apiaceae family. The high esteem for the aromatic taste of green coriander is illustrated by the use of two other species as a substitute: Eryngium foetidum (Apiaceae), known as sawtooth coriander and also as 'Mexican coriander', and Persicaria odorata (Polygonaceae), known as 'Vietnamese coriander'. (Flora Mesoamericana). The essential oil from the fruits is used in the flavour industry, for various basic and luxury foods, to some extent in medicine too, and in cosmetic perfumery. In: Tropicos website, St. Louis, Missouri; Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. Encyclopedia of herbs and spices. Coriander is your gut’s best friend. Basil. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. Tropicos website St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. > 10°C, Cold average temp. http://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/hawaiianflora/index.htm, Marianne Jennifer Datiles, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA. Coriander seeds include a particular enzyme that is helpful to lower the sugar from the blood. Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. Coriander is a very variable species, and the botanical literature contains several subclassifications into subspecies, varieties and forms. Copyright: various copyright holders. Sole cropping and intercropping, for example, with legumes, are practised. The 1000-seed weight is 7-17 g. The commercial essential oil is sometimes adulterated with sweet-orange oil, cedar-wood oil, turpentine and anethole or anise-fruit oil. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Pakistan, Floridata, 2015. http://www.floridata.com/ref/c/cori_sat.cfm, Forzza RC, Leitman PM, Costa AF, Carvalho Jr AA, Peixoto AL, et al., 2010. Because it's a short-lived plant, if you want a steady supply of cilantro, sow seeds every few weeks to keep a fresh supply of young plants. The word coriander can be used to describe the entire plant: leaves, stems, seeds, and all. The composition of the monoterpenoids is largely genetically determined, and this chemical feature supports an infraspecific classification mainly based on morphological characters. For successful fruit production the temperature sum during the vegetative period should be more than 1700°C and only high temperatures together with dry weather during ripening guarantee fruits of acceptable quality. December 2009. The species name, ‘sativum’ is Latin for cultivated, as this species has been grown for culinary purposes since Egyptian times. microcarpum (small fruits. New York, Chichester (), Brisbane, Toronto, UK: John Wiley and Sons. Can you please help us? a sighting. Diederichsen A, Rugayah, 1999. The species spreads by seeds, which have been globally traded for both medicinal and food purposes since ancient Egyptian times. The main component (usually making up more than 60% of the essential oil) is always linalool. 1.1 The position of coriander in plant systematics The genus Coriandrum includes the cultivated plant C. sativum and the wild species C. tordylium. http://tropicos.org/Project/Paraguay, Peru Checklist, 2015. Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff M G, et al, 2012. unintentionally); has become naturalized. Flora of Pakistan/Pakistan Plant Database (PPD). http://www.ars-grin.gov/, Vascular Plants of Antioquia, 2015. http://tropicos.org/Project/FM, Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015. Flora Mesoamericana. Inflorescence an indeterminate, compound umbel; peduncle up to 15 cm long; bracts sublinear, 0-2, up to 11 mm long; primary rays 2-8, up to 4.5 cm long; bracteoles 0-6, linear, up to 1 cm long; secondary rays up to 20, up to 5 mm long; usually each umbellet has bisexual peripheral flowers, and the central flowers are sometimes male; calyx in all flowers represented by 5 small lobes; corolla with 5 white or pale pink petals, heart-shaped, very small (1 mm x 1 mm) in male flowers, in bisexual peripheral flowers usually 3 petals are larger: 1 petal develops 2 ovate lobes of about 3 mm x 2 mm and the 2 adjacent petals each develop one lobe; stamens 5, filaments up to 2.5 mm long, white; pistil rudimentary in male flowers, in bisexual flowers with inferior ovary, a conical stylopodium bearing 2 diverging styles up to 2 mm long, each one ending in a minutely papillate stigma. Medium or large globose fruits with low or medium contents of essential oil (Sativum group or subsp. Germination of coriander occurs at temperatures above 4°C, but is optimal at 17-20°C for genotypes with small fruits and at 22-27°C for genotypes with larger fruits. The infraspecific taxa of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.)., Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 50(1):33-63, Duke J, 2015. In addition to its long history of repeated introductions, other invasive traits include its fast growth rate, ability to produce seed that remains viable for more than a year, its ability to pioneer disturbed areas, and the global trade of its seed. It is listed as “agricultural weed, casual alien, cultivation escape, garden thug, naturalised, sleeper weed, weed” in the Global Compendium of Weeds (Randall, 2012) and is listed as a weed in Israel, Lebanon, Morocco, and Taiwan (Holm et al., 1979).

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